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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review
bUsing Lott’s reconstruction of his original 1977-1992 data.
cUsing the revised new data set, which contains observations, 1977-2000, even though the estimates in this row use data only through 1992.
NOTE: All samples start in 1977. SE = standard error. Standard errors are in parentheses, where * = significant at 5% and ** = significant at 1%.
data, this reduced the magnitude of the estimated reduction in the rates of murder and aggravated assault, and it reversed the signs of the estimated effects of right-to-carry laws on rape, robbery, and all violent crime. That is, according to Duggan’s estimates, adoption of right-to-carry laws increases the frequencies of rape, robbery, and violent crime as a whole. Moreover, Duggan found there is no statistically significant effect of right-to-carry laws on violent crimes (at the 5 percent significance level).
Other researchers have varied the specification of the model, allowing for the effects of right-to-carry laws to be more heterogeneous. Black and Nagin (1998), for example, estimated a dummy variable model in which the effects of right-to-carry laws are allowed to vary among states (that is, the coefficient δ is allowed to take different values for different states). Plassmann and Tideman (2001) estimate a nonlinear Poisson regression model with a restricted set of covariates, but otherwise similar to Model 6.1. Ayres and Donohue (2003a) combined Models 6.1 and 6.2, thereby obtaining a hybrid model in which adoption of right-to-carry laws can affect both the level and the trend of crime. The results from these analyses, which vary the way in which right-to-carry laws can effect crime, are highly variable, with some suggesting that the laws increase crime, others suggesting that they decrease crime, and many being statistically insignificant.
In Black and Nagin (1998), for example, only Florida has a statistically significant decrease in the murder rate following adoption of a right-to-carry law, and only West Virginia has a statistically significant increase in