researchers also change the model specification. In particular, these analyses include additional covariates (i.e., state poverty, unemployment and death penalty execution rates) and allow for region-interacted time patterns, as opposed to a common time trend used in the original Lott models (Lott 2000:170).

With these new models and the updated sample endpoints, Lott found that the basic conclusions from the trend model are robust to the additional years of data covering the periods 1977-1996. Likewise, Plassmann and Whitley (2003) found that when the data are updated to cover the period 1977-2000, the trend model estimates of the effects of right-to-carry laws on crime continue to be negative, but only the estimates for rape and robbery are statistically significant. In the dummy variable model, Plassmann and Whitley found negative coefficient estimates for the right-to-carry coefficient for each violent crime category and positive coefficients for each of the property categories.

Ayres and Donohue (2003b), however, document a number of errors in the data used by Plassmann and Whitley, and Lott’s revised new data correct these errors. Plassmann, in communications with the committee, has agreed that the changes to these data are appropriate. Using the revised new data, the committee exactly replicated the results reported by Ayres and Donohue (2003b).

In particular, Ayres and Donohue (2003b) found that rerunning the dummy variable model regressions using the corrected data reduced the magnitude of the estimated reduction in the rates of violent crime, murder, rape, and robbery, and it reversed the sign of the estimated effects of right-to-carry laws on aggravated assault. Moreover, none of the negative estimates is statistically significant, while effects for larceny, auto theft, and property crime overall are positive and significant. Likewise, the changes in the crime trends are generally small in absolute value, and none of the changes is significantly different from zero (see Table 6-4).10

Maltz and Targonski (2002) do not update the data but instead assess the quality of the county crime data used in the empirical research on right-to-carry laws. In particular, they note that not all police jurisdictions report their crime levels to the FBI and argue that there is systematic underreporting in the UCR. Maltz and Targonski (2002:298) conclude that “county-level crime data, as they are currently constituted, should not be used, especially in policy studies.” However, Maltz and Targonski do not estimate the magnitude of the effects of underreporting on the results obtained by Lott and others. Thus, it is not known whether correcting for underreporting, if it were possible, would change any of the results.


Both Ayres and Donohue (2003b) and Plassmann and Whitley (2003) use standard errors that account for state clustering.

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