IRG, and a member of NIDA’s editorial board. She served on the NRC Committee on the Social and Economic Impact of Pathological Gambling. She has an M.P.H. from the Boston University School of Public Health and a Ph.D. from Washington University, St. Louis.


ROBERT D. CRUTCHFIELD is professor of sociology and department chair at the University of Washington. He has written extensively on labor markets and crime, as well as on racial and ethnic disparities in prosecution, sentencing, and imprisonment. He is a past vice-president of the American Society of Criminology and is currently on the Council of the American Sociological Association and the American Sociological Association’s Crime, Law, and Deviance Section. He served on the editorial board for the National Institute of Justice’s CJ2000 project. He has been a deputy editor of Criminology and has served on the editorial board of the journal Social Problems. He is currently on the editorial boards of Crime and Justice and Crime and Justice Research. He served on the NRC’s Ford Foundation minority predoctoral review panel on anthropology and sociology. He has M.A. (1976) and Ph.D. (1980) degrees in sociology fromVanderbilt University.


JOEL L. HOROWITZ is the Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison professor of economics at Northwestern University. He specializes in econometric theory, semiparametric estimation, bootstrap methods, discrete choice analysis, and inference with missing and incomplete data. He is currently working on projects involving adaptive testing, estimation of additive models with unknown links, bootstrap methods for nonsmooth models, and bandwidth selection in semiparametric estimation. He is co-editor of Econometrica and a member of the Econometric Society, the American Economic Association, the American Statistical Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Transportation Research Board. He has served on several NRC ad hoc committees, including the Committee on Data and Research for Policy on Illegal Drugs, and is currently a member of the Committee on National Statistics. He has a Ph.D. from Cornell University (1967).


ROBERT L. JOHNSON is professor of pediatrics and clinical psychiatry and director of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School. His research focuses on adolescent physical and mental health, adolescent HIV, adolescent violence, adolescent fatherhood and risk prevention/reduction programs with specific emphasis on substance and alcohol abuse, sexuality and sexual dysfunction, male sexual abuse, suicide, and AIDS. He currently serves on the National Institute of Mental Health’s national advisory council, the board of



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