National Violent Death Reporting System, the Data Elements for Emergency Department Systems, and the International Classification of External Cause of Injury coding system. The NIBRS and the NVDRS have been discussed; the latter two systems are described below.

Data Elements for Emergency Department Systems: CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control is coordinating an effort to develop uniform specifications for data entered into emergency department records. These specifications, known as DEEDS, are intended for use in 24-hour, hospital-based emergency departments throughout the United States. If the data definitions, coding conventions, and other recommended specifications were widely adopted, incompatibilities between emergency departments records would be substantially reduced. DEEDS does not specify an essential or minimum data set, but is designed to foster greater uniformity among individual data elements chosen for use. DEEDS also specifies standards for electronic data interchange so that data can be accessed for research purposes while maintaining confidentiality of patient records. DEEDS was first released in 1997 for testing and review. Systematic field studies, however, are still needed to assess the utility and practicality of the system.

International Classification of External Causes of Injury: An international effort, under the auspices of the World Health Organization, is currently under way to develop a new classification system for coding external causes of injury in mortality and morbidity systems. This system, known as the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI) is designed to capture details about the place of occurrence, activity at time of injury, alcohol and drug involvement, objects or substances involved, intent of injury, and mechanism of injury (e.g., firearms). Specific modules that focus on injuries related to violence, transportation, sports, and work are also under development. The first draft was released in 1998; the present version, ICECI 1.0, was released in 2001. A number of shortened versions have been tested for use as injury surveillance tools in places with limited resources for surveillance. CDC has tested its own short version as a means for capturing external cause of injury information from hospital emergency departments records in the United States with promising results. The European Union is also testing portions of ICECI as part of its efforts to create a minimum data set on injuries. ICECI is designed to replace the International Classification of Diseases coding system, which is thought to lack the scope and specificity needed to inform injury research. The present version of ICECI is undergoing formal review at the World Health Organization.11


Details about ICECI 1.0, including the data dictionary, are available at

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