The committee recommends that a methodological research program be established to address these problems. The design for data collection and analysis should be selected in light of particular research questions. For example, how, if at all, could improvements in current data, such as firearms trace data, be used in studies of the effects of policy interventions on firearms markets or any other policy issue? What would the desired improvements contribute to research on policy interventions for reducing firearms violence? Linking the research and data questions will help define the data that are needed. We recommend that the results of such research be regularly reported in the scientific literature and in forums accessible to investigators.

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS

Firearms, Criminal Violence, and Suicide

Despite the richness of descriptive information on the associations between firearms and violence at the aggregate level, explaining a violent death is a difficult business. Personal temperament, the availability of weapons, human motivation, law enforcement policies, and accidental circumstances all play a role in leading one person but not another to inflict serious violence or commit suicide.

Because of current data limitations, researchers have relied primarily on two different methodologies. First, some studies have used case-control methods, which match a sample of cases, namely victims of homicide or suicide, to a sample of controls with similar characteristics but who were not affected by violence. Second, some “ecological” studies compare homicide or suicide rates in large geographic areas, such as counties, states, or countries, using existing measures of ownership.

Case-control studies show that violence is positively associated with firearms ownership, but they have not determined whether these associations reflect causal mechanisms. Two main problems hinder inference on these questions. First and foremost, these studies fail to address the primary inferential problems that arise because ownership is not a random decision. For example, suicidal persons may, in the absence of a firearm, use other means of committing suicide. Homicide victims may possess firearms precisely because they are likely to be victimized. Second, reporting errors regarding firearms ownership may systemically bias the results of estimated associations between ownership and violence.

Ecological studies currently provide contradictory evidence on violence and firearms ownership. For example, in the United States, suicide appears to be positively associated with rates of firearms ownership, but homicide is not. In contrast, in comparisons among countries, the association between



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