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Primary Genera of Concern

Family

Compounds and Compound

Classes Implicated in Toxicity

Gutierrezia

Asteraceae

Diterpene acids (?)

Halogeton

Polygonaceae

Oxalates

Nitrates

Haplopappus

Asteraceae

Tremetol/tremetone derivatives

Hedera

Araliaceae

Saponins

Helenium

Asteraceae

Sesquiterpene lactones (helenalin, hymenovin)

Heliotropium

Boraginaceae

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

Helleborus

Ranunculaceae

Cardiac glycosides

Hippomane

Euphorbiaceae

Phorbol esters

Hyacinthus

Liliaceae

Unknown

Hymenoxys

Asteraceae

Sesquiterpene lactones (helenalin, hymenovin)

Hyoscyamus

Solanaceae

Tropane alkaloids

Illicium

Illiciaceae

Sesquiterpenes

Indigofera

Fabaceae

Canavanine

Hydrogen cyanide

Indospicine

β-nitropropionic acid

Nitrite

Ipomoeab

Convolvulaceae

Polyhydroxy nortropane and indolizidine alkaloids

Jatropha

Euphorbiaceae

Diterpenes

Juniperus

Cupressaceae

Labdane diterpene acids

Kalmia

Ericaceae

Grayanotoxins

Karwinskia

Rhamnaceae

Quinones, peroxisomicine A-1 (anthracene dimers)

Laburnum

Fabaceae

Quinolizidine alkaloids

Lantana

Verbenaceae

Triterpenes (lantadene A and B)

Larrea

Zygophyllaceae

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid

Lathyrus

Fabaceae

Aminobutyric and aminopropionic acids and nitriles

Leucaena

Fabaceae

Mimosine

Liatris

Asteraceae

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids



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