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HARDBACK
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Observed or Predicted Toxicity

Classa

Other Comments

Gastritis, vasoconstriction, death

B

Large amounts in livestock

Cholinesterase inhibition, death

A

 

Extreme irritation on inhalation of root powder

B

 

Cholinomimetic

A

 

Abortifacient

B

Mainly in livestock

Gastroenteritis, catharsis, conjunctivitis

A

 

Cardiotoxic

A

 

Gastroenteritis, death

A

 

Cardiac and respiratory failure, death

A

 

Nephrotoxic

A

 

Carcinogenic

A

The fronds (fiddle heads) are processed (salting) and are safely eaten. All toxicities reported in livestock are from unprocessed fronds

Gastroenteritis, death

A

Mainly in large doses in livestock

Indigestion, depression, death

B

Mainly in livestock

Convulsant

A

All parts

Blindness

A

Mainly in livestock

Hemorrhagic, circulatory system

A

Only seeds are toxic

Hemorrhagic, circulatory system

A

 

Incoordination, gastroenteritis

C

Large amounts in livestock

Indigestion, Depression, death

C

Mainly in livestock

Cardiac and respiratory failure, death

A

 

Coma

A

Rhizomes

Gastroenteritis, coma, death

B

 

Indigestion, depression, death

B

Mainly in large amounts in livestock

Hypotension

B

Seeds and leaves

Carcinogenic

A

Bark, essential oils

Cardiotoxic, death

A

 



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