NOTE: The information in this table was developed by committee members knowledgeable in botanicals and phytochemicals who consulted the references listed at the end of the chapter as needed. A review of each of the genera and families on this list was not practical within the constraints of this report. The list should thus be considered as a general guideline for determining which warrant attention, not as an authoritative statement on any in particular.
a A = reports of adverse effects to the heart, liver, lungs, kidney, immune system, reproductive system, teratogenicity, carcinogenesis, central nervous system (convulsant), or death in animals or humans, or where well-known constituents with adverse effects on these same organs, that is, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (liver), cardiac glycosides (heart), methylazoxymethanol glycosides (cancer) are reported for the genus. B = reports of nonpotentially lethal effects in humans or animals, such as severe irritation, gastric upset, emesis, photosensitization, or allergenicity. C = reports of effects that cannot be explained on the basis of known chemistry of the genus or where exceptional amounts, especially in livestock, were required to elicit the effect.