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Everist SL. 1981. Poisonous Plants of Australia. London: Angus & Robertson Publishers.

Garland T, Barr AC, eds. 1998. Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

James LF, Keeler RF, Cheeke PR, Bailey EM, Hegarty MP, eds. 1992. Poisonous Plants. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

Keeler RF, Tu AT, eds. 1983. Handbook of Natural Toxins. Volume 1. Plant and Fungal Toxins. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Keeler RF, Tu AT. 1991. Handbook of Natural Toxins. Volume 6. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Keeler RF, Van Kampen KR, James LF, eds. 1978. Effects of Poisonous Plants on Livestock. New York: Academic Press.

Kellerman TS, Coetzer JAW, Naudé TW. 1988. Plant Poisonings and Mycotoxicoses of Livestock in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press.

Kingsbury JM. 1964. Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Seawright AE, Hegarty MP, Keeler RF, James LF, eds. 1985. Plant Toxicology. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Poisonous Plants Committee.


The Agavaceae is of primary concern for the species Agave lecheguilla (lechuguilla), which causes secondary (hepatogenic) photosensitization; sheep and goats are frequently poisoned. The toxin is a saponin that is hepato- and nephrotoxic (Camp et al., 1988). Damage to the liver results in incomplete metabolism of chlorophyll, leading to peripheral circulation of phylloerythrin with excessive absorption of solar radiation (Keeler and Tu, 1983). Also, Nolina texana (sacahuista, bear grass) has been responsible for poisoning in livestock, especially the buds, blooms, and fruits, which are readily consumed (Cheeke, 1998; Keeler and Tu, 1983). In sheep, a toxic dose is 1.1 percent of the animal’s body weight (Kingsbury, 1964). Primary damage is to the liver, with progressive deterioration and death, but the toxin is unknown.

The Amaryllidaceae, especially the genera Amaryllis, Crinum, Galanthus, Haemanthus, Narcissus, and Nerine, have caused poisonings in humans and animals when consumed during times of food shortages (Kingsbury, 1964). The bulbs of these species contain galanthamine, a competitive cholinesterase inhibitor, as well as other related alkaloids (Lopez et al., 2002).

The Anacardiaceae contains a number of species that produce

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