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tion of NDGA and other lignans. As a quality measure, there should be an analysis of metals since chaparral plants concentrate metals from the soil (Gardea-Torresdey et al., 2001). Furthermore, when reporting human experience with ingesting chaparral, the formulation is important to note. The formulation can best be critically evaluated if the manufacturer, date, and lot number are reported.

REFERENCES

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Gardea-Torresdey JL, Arteaga S, Tiemann KJ, Chianelli R, Pingitore N, Mackay W. 2001. Absorption of copper(II) by creosote bush (Larrea tridentata): Use of atomic and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:2572–2579.

Goodman T, Grice HC, Becking GC, Salem FA. 1970. A cystic nephropathy induced by nordihydroguaiaretic acid in the rat. Light and electron microscopic investigations. Lab Invest 23:93–107.


Kacew S. 2001. Confounding factors in toxicity testing. Toxicology 160:87–96.


Mikuni M, Yoshida M, Hellberg P, Peterson CA, Edwin SS, Brännström M, Peterson CM. 1998. The lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, inhibits ovulation and reduces leukotriene and prostaglandin levels in the rat ovary. Biol Reprod 58:1211–1216.


Obermeyer WR, Musser SM, Betz JM, Casey RE, Pohland AE, Page SW. 1995. Chemical studies of phytoestrogens and related compounds in dietary supplements: Flax and chaparral. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 208:6–12.



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