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Substances and Disease Registry in a recent toxicological profile for chromium (ATSDR, 2000).

C. Unresolved Issues and Uncertainties in the Available Data

There are some unresolved issues given the currently available data regarding the safety of chromium picolinate. However, at this time, the totality of the data does not indicate an urgent need for additional research studies or data gathering. An issue of concern is the lack of information on the long-term effects of chronic chromium picolinate at the recommended doses. Long-term effects might be addressed by determining if ingestion of chromium picolinate in the amount and duration typical of dietary supplements results in sufficient intracellular Cr(III) concentration to cause nuclear damage and/or oxidative stress.

The individual usage patterns of chromium picolinate are needed in a published format that is readily accepted by the scientific community. To know how many people take how much chromium and for how long is an important consideration in evaluating long-term safety.

Since there are studies in which adverse effects are not mentioned or in which the rate of subject withdrawal data is missing, it is advised that the authors of those studies be contacted and specifics be obtained.

D. Data Gaps and Future Research Recommended

There are no recommendations for future research at this time.

REFERENCES

Anderson RA, Kozlovsky AS. 1985. Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets. Am J Clin Nutr 41:1177–1183.

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2000. Toxicologial Profile for Chromium. Atlanta: ATSDR.


Campbell WW, Beard JL, Joseph LJ, Davey SL, Evans WJ. 1997. Chromium picolinate supplementation and resistive training by older men: Effects on iron-status and hematologic indexes. Am J Clin Nutr 66:944–949.

Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Gauthier I, Malone M, McGoldrick MD. 1998. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 32:428–431.


IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Kato I, Vogelman JH, Dilman V, Karkoszka J, Frenkel K, Durr NP, Orentreich N, Toniolo P. 1998. Effect of supplementation with chromium picolinate on antibody titers to 5-hydroxymethyl uracil. Eur J Epidemiol 14:621–626.


Rebello T, Lonnerdal B, Hurley LS. 1982. Picolinic acid in milk, pancreatic juice, and intestine: Inadequate for role in zinc absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 35:1–5.


Versieck J. 1985. Trace elements in human body fluids and tissues. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 22:97–184.



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