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TABLE A Chaparral: Individual Components

Substance

Structure

Safety Issues

Lignans, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), and other substituted guaiaretic acid derivatives

NDGA (Duisberg et al., 1949; Waller and Gisvold, 1945)

Present in all parts of Larrea tridentata, including leaves, stems and twigs at 5–15% of the dry leaf weight (Mabry et al., 1977)

 

Animal studies: see Table E for safety issues from animal studies with NDGA

In vitro study: see Table F-2 for safety issues from in vitro studies with NDGA

Dihydroguaiaretic acid (Obermeyer et al., 1995)

Partially demethylated dihydroguaiaretic acid is also present (Gisvold and Thaker, 1974)

 

In vitro study: weak cytotoxic activity (IC50 1–3 μg/mL) (Njoku et al., 1997)

In vitro study: weak cytotoxic activity (10 μg/mL) and (Gisvold and Thaker, 1974)

Guaiaretic acid (Obermeyer et al., 1995)

 

No data suggestive of toxicity are available

Secoisolariciresinol (Obermeyer et al., 1995)

Present in the stems of L. tridentata (Konno et al., 1990)

 

In vitro study: weak cytotoxic activity (IC50 0.6–8.3 μg/mL) (Shen et al., 1997); see Table F-2

Lignans, furanoid

Larreatricin (Konno et al., 1987)

Present in the stems of L. tridentata (Konno et al., 1990) in trace amounts (0.001% of dry leaf weight)

 

No data suggestive of toxicity are available

4-epi-Larreatricin (Konno et al., 1987)

Present in the leaves, twigs and stems of L. tridentata (Konno et al., 1990) in trace amounts (up to 0.0003% of dry leaf weight)

 

No data suggestive of toxicity are available



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