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HARDBACK
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Substance

Structure

Safety Issues

Wax esters (found on the external surface of leaves and stems; 0.1% w/w of fresh leaf weight by steam distillation): alkyl esters (C48–C56), fatty acids (C48–C56) (Bohnstedt, 1979; Mabry et al., 1977; Waller and Gisvold, 1945)

Sterols: campesterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, cholesterol (Habermehl and Christ, 1974; Konno et al., 1987; Xue et al., 1988)

2-Ketones (probably contribute to the odor of L. tridentata): 2-dodecanone, 2-undecanone, 2-tridecanone; traces of 2-tetradecanone, 2-pentadecanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone (Bohnstedt, 1979; Brinker, 1993–1994; Mabry et al., 1977)

Vinyl ketones (probably contribute to odor of chaparral of L. tridentata): 1-hexen-3-one, 1-octen-3-one; traces of 1-hepten-3-one (Bohnstedt, 1979; Brinker, 1993–1994; Mabry et al., 1977)

Fatty alcohols (C22–C32) (Bohnstedt, 1979)

Other hydrocarbons: n-tridecane, n-tetradecane; traces of 3-methylbutanal, 3-hexanol, hexanal, 3-hexen-1-yl acetate, isobutyric acid (Bohnstedt, 1979; Brinker, 1993–1994; Mabry et al., 1977)

NOTE: IC50 = Concentration at which the response has decreased to 50% of the original response, CYP = cytochrome P450, MAO = monoamine oxidase.



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