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Substance

Study Design

Results and Conclusions

NDGA, 10 μM

Chemiluminescence was used to indicate production of oxidative metabolites from polymorphonuclear leukocytes interacting with formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine.

NDGA acted as antioxidant that eliminates extracellular and intracellular production of oxidative metabolites (Dahlgren, 1991)

NDGA

Cells in culture:

Chinese hamster V79 cells

NDGA reduced cytotoxicity of H2O2 (Nakayama, 1994)

Derivatives of NDGA (also present in chaparral)

3′-O-Methyl NDGA, ID50 41 ηmol/mg mitochondrial protein

Beef heart mitochondria

3′-O-Methyl NDGA inhibited mitochondrial electron transport (by inhibition of succinoxidase and NADH-oxidase) (Heiser et al., 1977)

Meso-dihydroguiaretic acid

Rat liver microsomes

Inhibited aminopyrene N-demethylase activity (various CYP forms) (Stetler-Stevenson et al., 1992)

Secoisolariciresinol

Cells in culture:

P-388 (mouse lymphocyte leukemia cell line) IC50 8.3 μg/mL (23 μM)

KB-16 (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line) IC50 0.8 μg/mL (2.2 μM)

A-549 (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line) IC50 1.4 μg/mL (3.9 μM)

HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cell line) IC50 0.6 μg/mL (1.7 μM)

Weak cytotoxic activity (Shen et al., 1997)

NOTE: LC50 = concentration that is lethal to 50 percent of the organisms exposed, LD50 = dose that is lethal to 50 percent of the organisms exposed, ID50 = dose at which the response has decreased to 50 percent of the original response, LDH = lactate dehydrogenase, CYP = cytochrome P450, ED50 = dose required to produce a specified effect in 50 percent of the test organisms exposed, CD-1 = a strain of mice.



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