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TABLE A Individual Components of Saw Palmetto Fruit

Hexane-extractable componentsa

Fatty acids – Breu et al., 1992; Cristoni et al., 1997; De Swaef and Vlietinck, 1996;

 

Hatinguais et al., 1981; Jommi et al., 1988; Kloss, 1966. No data suggestive of toxicity are available.

Valeric acid – C5:0; a possible constituent of fresh saw palmetto fruit (Kloss, 1966).

Caproic – C6:0; contributes to characteristic odor of fresh saw palmetto fruit.

Caprylic acid – C8:0; < 2% of total fatty acids; contributes to characteristic odor of fresh saw palmetto fruit.

Capric acid – C10:0; caprinic acid; < 2% of total fatty acids). In vitro: inhibited type 2 steroid 5-α-reductase in homogenates of human genital fibroblasts grown in culture (IC50 1.0 mM) (Niederprüm et al., 1995).

Lauric acid – C12:0; 24% of total fatty acids.

 

 

Lauric acid – 0.5 mg/mL ethanol extract (De Swaef and Vlietinck, 1996). In vitro: lauric acid inhibited type 2 steroid 5-α-reductase in homogenates of human genital fibroblasts grown in culture (IC50 0.2 mM). Inhibited type 1 steroid 5-α-reductase in homogenates of human prostate tissue (IC50 < 0.5 mM) (Niederprüm et al., 1995).

Ethyl laurate – 0.7 mg/mL ethanol extract (De Swaef and Vlietinck, 1996). In vitro: ethyl laurate or other esterified forms of lauric acid did not inhibit type 2 steroid 5-α-reductase.

 

Myristic acid – C14:0; 12% of total fatty acids. In vitro: inhibited type 2 steroid 5-α-reductase in homogenates of human genital fibroblasts grown in culture (IC40 0.6 mM) (Niederprüm et al., 1995).

Palmitic acid – C16:0.

Palmitoleic acid – C16:1; 9% of total fatty acids.

Stearic acid – C18:0.

Oleic acid – C18:1; 33% of total fatty acids. In vitro: inhibited type 2 steroid 5-α-reductase in homogenates of human genital fibroblasts grown in culture (IC50 0.4 mM) (Niederprüm et al., 1995).

Linoleic acid – C18:2; 4% of total fatty acids. In vitro: inhibited type 2 steroid 5-α-reductase in homogenates of human genital fibroblasts grown in culture (IC50 0.08 mM) (Niederprüm et al., 1995).

Linolenic acid – C18:3. In vitro: inhibited type 2 steroid 5-α-reductase in homogenates of human genital fibroblasts grown in culture (IC50 0.1 mM) (Niederprüm et al., 1995).

Arachidic acid – C20:0.

Most fatty acids are also present as ethyl esters. Some reviewers reported relatively small proportions as ethyl esters 1 (Nemecz, 1998); however, some investigators reported relatively large amounts (De Swaef and Vlietinck, 1996; De Swaef et al., 1996).

Phenolics – Some of these components have also been reported to be ethanol extractable. No data suggestive of toxicity are available.

 

Anthranilic acid – an aromatic amine (2-aminobenzoic acid)

Trans-ferulic acid – 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid.

Syringaldehyde – 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-benzaldehyde.

Vanillic acid – 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoic acid.



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