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Quercitrin – 3,3,4,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (Hiermann, 1989). In vitro: inhibitor of human prostate type 1 steroid 5--reductase (transfected as cDNA into rat 1A cells in culture; IC50 23 μM) (Hiipakka et al., 2002). Inhibited platelet aggregation and (Kokkalou and Souleles, 1988).

Isoquercitrin – quercetin-3-glucoside (Hiermann, 1989).

Rutin – quercitin-3-O-rutinoside (Hiermann, 1989).

Polyprenoids – No data suggestive of toxicity are available.

 

Farnesol – C15:3; 3 isoprenic units (Jommi et al., 1988). In vitro: farnesol or geraniol (30 ηg/mL) inhibited proliferation of human prostate cells in culture induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) (Paubert-Braquet et al., 1998; data not shown). Geraniol is a precursor of farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranyl geraniol.

Phytol – C20:1; 4 isoprenic units (Jommi et al., 1988).

Geranyl geraniol – C20:4; 4 isoprenic units (Jommi et al., 1988).

Serenoa polyprenol 2 – C30; 0.0005% of dry weight (Jommi et al., 1988).

Serenoa polyprenol 3 – C35; 0.0035% of dry weight (Jommi et al., 1988).

Octamethyldotriacontaoctaenol – C40:8; 8 isoprenic units; 0.027% of dry weight (Jommi et al., 1988).

Nonamethylhexatriacontanonaenol – C45:9; 9 isoprenic units (Jommi et al., 1988).

Phenolic glycosides – No data suggestive of toxicity are available.

Populin – 2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl--D-glucopyranoside 6-benzoate (Hiermann, 1989).

Water-soluble components

Saccharides – No data suggestive of toxicity are available.

 

Monosaccharides – Glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, fucose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, uronic acid, xylose (Harnischfeger and Stolze, 1989; Jommi et al., 1988; Wagner and Flachsbarth, 1981).

Polysaccharides: galactoarabane.

High-molecular-weight polysaccharides: acidic high molecular weight polysaccharides (25–500 kDa with immunostimulating activity) (Wagner et al., 1985).

NOTE: IC50 = concentration at which response has decreased to 50 percent of the original response, cDNA = complementary to mRNA.



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