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ESCOP is an umbrella organization for phytotherapy trade associations, thus conflict of interest cannot be ruled out


Use of peer review

Peer reviewed

Personal communication with NMCD indicated that peer review is conducted

Focus on a particular standardized product and discussion of preparation impact on safety

Appears to focus on a standardized product; one monograph compares the effects of the root preparation with the syrup on driving impairment

Generally does not focus on specific products or impact of preparation on safety

Description of consumption levels considered

The level at which adverse effects were reported is described

Doses used are described; impact of dose on safety is discussed

Consideration of data from non-oral routes of exposure


Non-oral data are referred to in some sections, but it is not clear if these data were considered as possibly relevant for safety of oral consumption of the ingredient

Discussion of biological activity or possible mechanism of action

Addressed, but not necessarily with safety in mind


Discussion of specific groups within the general population, if appropriate

Considers pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy and lactation are always included in the safety assessment, children are sometimes included; secondary sources are largely used for this discussion

Interaction with other interventions

Sections for interactions are included, but both examples examined stated “none reported”

Describes information for other supplements, drugs, and foods, and other medical conditions; discusses side effects or contraindications observed in the literature, as well as those that might be theorized based on knowledge of the mechanism of action

Other comments and considerations for using this resource

Emphasis on European botanical products that may not resemble

Comprehensive in terms of the human clinical literature and the number

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