Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) (Parker et al., 1995), a series of questions designed to measure health literacy. A detailed description of the survey and data has been published elsewhere (Gazmararian et al., 1999).

Prudential administrative claims databases were used to compute annual health expenditures from the date of enrollment for all eligible enrollees by site of service (inpatient, outpatient, emergency room, and pharmacy). The claims database includes costs for all medical services used by enrollees associated with insurance reimbursement. The cost for each service is the sum of Prudential’s reimbursement and the beneficiary’s out-of-pocket payment.

Table B-1 presents evidence on how closely the study sample represents the U.S. population of health-care consumers. The first column of the table presents summary statistics for the 3,260 responders, the second for the 3,245 nonresponders, and the third for participants of comparable age in the household component of the 1997 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) (for a description see Cohen et al., 1996–1997). Differences between samples were assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests by group for three-sample comparisons of continuous variables and chi-squared tests for two-sample comparisons of binary variables. ANOVA tests for differences in the cost variables were performed on the natural

TABLE B-1 Representativeness of the Study Sample

 

Prudential

 

 

 

Responders

Nonresponders

MEPS 97

P-value

Inpatient costs

$5,321

$4,512

$2,276

<0.01

Outpatient costs

$1,837

$1,547

$1,203

<0.01

ER costs

$131

$115

$124

<0.01

Pharmacy costs

$677

$655

$743

<0.01

Age

72.8±6.4

73.3±6.8

74.6±6.8

<0.01

Schooling

12 years

34%

no data

31%

0.03

>12 years

31%

no data

28%

0.03

Need help with ADLs

5%

no data

9%

<0.01

Need help with IADLs

31%

no data

16%

<0.01

N

3,260

3,245

3,833

 

NOTE: Age row reports mean ± standard deviation.



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