tional site visits on a yearly basis to ascertain progress toward meeting the standards.

  1. Use graduated sanctions and reinforcement from the accrediting body to help “shape” appropriate diversity efforts. APA’s Committee on Accreditation works collaboratively with institutions to help them reach their diversity goals. Sanctions for failure to achieve diversity standards are graduated, such that first-time or isolated infractions result in institutions being asked to report to the committee the steps planned to rectify the infraction. Repeated instances of failure to meet standards are met with increasing sanctions.

  2. Seek community representation on standard-setting bodies. APA’s Committee on Accreditation reserves seats for nonprofessional community members, who often bring a broader perspective to accreditation efforts. Their presence on the committee also helps to ensure pubic accountability and transparency.

  3. Seek diverse representation on peer review teams. Anecdotally, the study committee is aware of instances in which peer review teams have lacked significant racial and ethnic diversity. Even in the face of strong accreditation standards related to diversity, the absence of racial and ethnic diversity on peer review teams can send a signal that may undermine the accreditation body’s intent. Peer review teams should reflect the same goals and objectives that the accrediting body adopts, including in areas of diversity.

Many of the standards and practices adopted by the APA are also reflected in diversity-related standards of the other health professions accrediting bodies reviewed here. In particular, the CDA’s requirement that dental schools develop admissions policies and procedures that attend to recruitment and admission of a diverse student population and its mandate that dental graduates must possess the skills and competencies to serve a racially and ethnically diverse patient population are consistent with the goal of encouraging student diversity and diversity-related curriculum. In addition, CDA’s efforts to assess the impact of accreditation standards on dental school student diversity are an important to evaluate the effectiveness of program standards. Similarly, LCME’s standards require attention to diversity in recruitment and retention of students, as well as in curriculum to improve students’ cross-cultural competencies and reduce individual biases.

Recommendation 4-2: Health professions education accreditation bodies should develop explicit policies articulating the value and importance of providing culturally competent health care and the role it sees for racial and ethnic diversity among health professionals in achieving this goal.

Recommendation 4-3: Health professions education accreditation bod-

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