has in place methods by which to assess longitudinal outcome data to determine whether the school is meeting this goal. A 10-year retrospective study demonstrates that the school has been highly successful from its initial identification of a cohort of minority students that ultimately engages in practice in the rural and underserved areas of the state. This mission is supported throughout all levels of the institution (University of New Mexico, unpublished data, 2003). Another school, the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, graduates one of the largest cohorts of minority students in the country. The college has developed programs to encourage applications from qualified individuals from medically underserved areas of Illinois. The college maintains a professional staff to provide guidance and counseling to motivated students from minority ethnic groups and those resident candidates whose backgrounds indicate potential for practice in underserved areas of the state (AAMC, 2001–2002). The Drew/University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) medical program offers 24 of the 145 UCLA entering places to students interested in addressing the concerns of an underserved population. Students spend the first 2 years at UCLA and their second 2 years at the Martin Luther King, Jr./Charles R. Drew Medical Center in south central Los Angeles.

Nearly 50 years ago, in Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court observed that education is “the very foundation of good citizenship” (Brown v. Board of Education, 1954). The court’s affirmative decision on the constitutionality that diversity is convincing reinforcement that “Effective participation by members of all racial and ethnic groups in the civic life of our nation is essential if the dream of one Nation, indivisible, is to be realized.” (Supreme Court of the United States, 2003, Grutter et al. v. Bollinger et al., 539 U.S. p. 19).

Diversity in Admissions

The Impact of the Supreme Court Decision

The major impact of the Supreme Court decision rendered on June 23, 2003, as it pertains to accreditation, centers squarely on the admissions process and an institution’s ability to produce a diverse health care workforce. The University of Michigan cases, Grutter et al. v. Bollinger et al. and Gratz et al. v. Bollinger et al., were the most significant tests of affirmative action to reach the courts in generations in that they challenged the university’s “ability to compose a student body that enables it to achieve its educational mission and fulfill its obligations to the larger society” (The Compelling Need, 1999, p. 7). Two different admissions policies were at issue.

The Grutter et al. v. Bollinger et al. case challenged the university’s law



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