Selected Bibliography

Below we provide a list of selected papers from the theoretical and empirical literature on discrimination. These papers are organized by the specific domains discussed in Chapter 4.

GENERAL

Ayres, I., and P. Siegelman 1995 Race and gender discrimination in bargaining for a new car. American Economic Review 85(3):304–321.


Becker, G.S. 1971 The Economics of Discrimination, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Brown, T.N. 2001 Measuring self-perceived racial and ethnic discrimination in a social survey. Sociological Spectrum 21:377–392.


Coate, S., and G.C. Loury 1993 Will affirmative-action policies eliminate negative stereotypes? American Economic Review 83(5):1220–1240.

Crosby, F., S. Bromley, and L. Saxe 1980 Recent unobtrusive studies of black and white discrimination and prejudice: A literature review. Psychological Bulletin 87:546–563.


Dovidio, J.F., and S.L. Gaertner, eds. 1986 Prejudice, discrimination, and racism: Historical trends and contemporary approaches. In Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Dovidio, J.F., J.C. Brigham, B.T. Johnson, and S.L. Gaertner 1996 Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination: Another look. In Stereotypes and Stereotyping, C.N. Macrae, C. Stangor, and M. Hewstone, eds. New York: Guilford Press.



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Measuring Racial Discrimination Selected Bibliography Below we provide a list of selected papers from the theoretical and empirical literature on discrimination. These papers are organized by the specific domains discussed in Chapter 4. GENERAL Ayres, I., and P. Siegelman 1995 Race and gender discrimination in bargaining for a new car. American Economic Review 85(3):304–321. Becker, G.S. 1971 The Economics of Discrimination, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Brown, T.N. 2001 Measuring self-perceived racial and ethnic discrimination in a social survey. Sociological Spectrum 21:377–392. Coate, S., and G.C. Loury 1993 Will affirmative-action policies eliminate negative stereotypes? American Economic Review 83(5):1220–1240. Crosby, F., S. Bromley, and L. Saxe 1980 Recent unobtrusive studies of black and white discrimination and prejudice: A literature review. Psychological Bulletin 87:546–563. Dovidio, J.F., and S.L. Gaertner, eds. 1986 Prejudice, discrimination, and racism: Historical trends and contemporary approaches. In Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Dovidio, J.F., J.C. Brigham, B.T. Johnson, and S.L. Gaertner 1996 Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination: Another look. In Stereotypes and Stereotyping, C.N. Macrae, C. Stangor, and M. Hewstone, eds. New York: Guilford Press.

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Measuring Racial Discrimination Feagin, J.R. 1991 The continuing significance of race: Antiblack discrimination in public places. American Sociological Review 56:101–116. Fiske, S.T. 1998 Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. In The Handbook of Social Psychology, 4th ed., D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, and G. Lindzey, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2000 Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination at the seam between centuries: Evolution, culture, mind, and brain. European Journal of Social Psychology 30:299–322. Fix, M., and R.J. Struyk 1993 Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measurement of Discrimination in America. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Fix, M., and M.A. Turner 1998 A National Report Card on Discrimination in America: The Role of Testing. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. National Research Council 1989 A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society, G.D. Jaynes and R.N. Williams, Jr., eds. Committee on the Status of Black Americans, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2001 America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Vol. II, N.J. Smelser, W.J. Wilson, and F. Mitchell, eds. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Phelps, E.S. 1972 The statistical theory of racism and sexism. American Economic Review 62:659–661. CRIMINAL JUSTICE Ayres, I., and J. Waldfogel 1994 A market test for race discrimination in bail setting. Stanford Law Review 46:987–1047. Blumstein, A. 1982 On the racial disproportionality of United States’ prison populations. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 73:1259–1281. 1993 Racial disproportionality of U.S. prison populations revisited. University of Colorado Law Review 64:743–760. Bright, S. 1995 Discrimination, death, and denial: The tolerance of racial discrimination in infliction of the death penalty. Santa Clara Law Review 35(2):433–483. Knowles, J., and N. Persico 2001 Racial bias in motor vehicle searches: Theory and evidence. Journal of Political Economy 109:203–229. Knowles, J., N. Persico, and P. Todd 1999 Racial Bias in Motor Vehicle Searches: Theory and Evidence. (NBER Working Paper 7449.) Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. National Research Council 2001 Racial trends in the administration of justice. In America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Vol. II, N.J. Smelser, W.J. Wilson, and F. Mitchell, eds. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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Measuring Racial Discrimination Sampson, R.J., and J.L. Lauritsen 1997 Racial and ethnic disparities in crime and criminal justice in the United States. Crime and Justice 21:311–374. Tonry, M. 1995 Malign Neglect: Race, Crime, and Punishment in America. New York: Oxford University Press. Weich, R., and C. Angulo 2002 Racial disparities in the American criminal justice system. In Rights at Risk: Equality in an Age of Terrorism, D.M. Piche, L. Taylor, and R.A. Reed, eds. Washington, DC: Citizen’s Civil Rights Commission. Weitzer, R. 1996 Racial discrimination in the criminal justice system: Findings and problems in the literature. Journal of Criminal Justice 24(4):309–322. EDUCATION Hallinan, M.T. 2001 Sociological perspectives on black-white inequalities in American schooling. Sociology of Education Special Issue:50–70. National Research Council 2002 Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education, M.S Donovan and C.T. Cross, eds. Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Norman, O., C.R. Ault, B. Bentz, and L. Meskimen 2001 The black-white “achievement gap” as a perennial challenge of urban science education: A sociocultural and historical overview with implications for research and practice. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 38:1101–1114. Oswald, D.P., M.J. Coutinho, and A.M. Best 2000 Community and Social Predictors of Overrepresentation of Minority Children in Special Education. Unpublished paper presented at the Harvard Civil Rights Project Conference on Minority Issues in Special Education, Cambridge, MA, November 17. Selmi, M. 1999 The shape of the river: Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions. Virginia Law Review 85:697–739. HEALTH CARE American Medical Association Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs 1990 Black-white disparities in health care. Journal of the American Medical Association 263(17):2344–2346. Ford, E.S., and R.S. Cooper 1995 Racial/ethnic differences in health care utilization of cardiovascular procedures: A review of the evidence. Health Services Research 30:237–252. Gomes, C., and T.G. McGuire 2001 Identifying the Sources of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health Care Use. Unpublished paper, Boston University, Boston, MA. Institute of Medicine 2003 Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, B.D.

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Measuring Racial Discrimination Smedley, A.Y. Smith, and A.R. Nelson, eds. Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, Board on Health Sciences Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Kressin, N.R., and L.A. Petersen 2001 Racial differences in the use of invasive cardiovascular procedures: Review of the literature and prescription for further research. Annals of Internal Medicine 135(5):352–366. Krieger, N. 1999 Embodying inequality: A review of concepts, measures and methods for studying health consequences of discrimination. International Journal of Health Services 29:295–352. 2000 Discrimination and health. In Social Epidemiology, L.F. Berkman and I. Kawachi, eds. New York: Oxford University Press. Landrine, H., and E.A. Klonoff 1996 The schedule of racist events: A measure of racial discrimination and a study of its negative physical and mental health consequences. Journal of Black Psychology 22:144–168. LaVeist, T., and M.C. Gibbons 2001 Measuring racial and ethnic discrimination in the U.S. healthcare setting: A review of the literature and suggestions for a monitoring program. Final report to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, April 12. Lillie-Blanton, M., P.E. Parson, H. Gayle, and A. Dievler 1996 Racial differences in health: Not just black and white, but shades of gray. Annual Review of Public Health 17:411–448. Lillie-Blanton, M., M. Brodie, D. Rowland, D. Altman, and M. McIntosh 2000 Race, ethnicity, and the health care system: Public perceptions and experiences. Medical Care Research and Review 57(1):218–235. Mayberry, R., F. Mili, and E. Ofili 2000 Racial and ethnic differences in access to medical care. Medical Care Research and Review, 2000, Supplement I 57:108–146. Sheifer, E.S., J.J. Escarce, and K.A. Schulman 2000 Race and sex differences in the management of coronary artery disease. American Heart Journal 139(5):848–857. Williams, D.R. 1999 Race, socioeconomic status, and health: The added effects of racism and discrimination. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 896:173–188. Williams, D.R., and T.D. Rucker 2000 Understanding and addressing racial disparities in health care. Health Care Financing Review 21:75–90. HOUSING/MORTGAGE LENDING Carr, J.H., and I.F. Megbolugbe 1993 Federal Reserve Bank of Boston study on mortgage lending revisited. Journal of Housing Research 4:277–314. Center for Community Change 1989 Mortgage Lending Discrimination Testing Project. Unpublished report, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Charles, K., and E. Hurst 2002 The transition to home ownership and the black-white wealth gap. Review of Economics and Statistics 84(2):281–297.

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Measuring Racial Discrimination Donnerstein, E., M. Donnerstein, and C. Koch 1975 Racial discrimination in apartment rentals: A replication. Journal of Social Psychology 96:37–38. Ferguson, M.F., and S.R. Peters 1995 What constitutes evidence of discrimination in lending? Journal of Finance 50:739–748. Fix, M., G. Galster, and R.J. Struyk 1993 An overview of auditing for discrimination. In Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measurement of Discrimination in America, M. Fix and R.J. Struyk, eds. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Galster, G. 1990a Federal fair housing policy: The great misapprehension. In Building Foundations: Housing and Federal Policy, D. Dipasquale and L.C. Keyes, eds. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 1990b Racial steering by real estate agents: A review of the audit evidence. Review of Black Political Economy 18:105–129. 1992 Research on discrimination in housing and mortgage markets: Assessment and future directions. Housing Policy Debate 3:639–684. Heckman, J.J., and P. Siegelman 1993 The Urban Institute audit studies: Their methods and findings. In Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measurement of Discrimination in America, M. Fix and R.J. Struyk, eds. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Ladd, H.F. 1998 Evidence on discrimination in mortgage lending. Journal of Economic Perspectives 12:41–62. Massey, D.S., and N.A. Denton 1993 American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Munnell, A.H., G.M.B. Tootell, L.E. Browne, and J. McEneaney 1996 Mortgage lending in Boston: Interpreting HMDA data. American Economic Review 86(1):25–53. National Research Council 2001 Residential segregation and neighborhood conditions in U.S. metropolitan areas. In America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Vol. 1, N.J. Smelser, W.J. Wilson, and F. Mitchell, eds. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2002 Measuring Housing Discrimination in a National Study: Report of a Workshop, A.W. Foster, F. Mitchell, and S.E. Fienberg, eds. Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Nesiba, R.F. 1996 Racial discrimination in residential lending markets: Why empirical researchers always see it and economic theorists never do. Journal of Economic Issues 30(1):51–78. Ondrich, J., S.L. Ross, and J. Yinger 2000 How common is housing discrimination? Improving on traditional measures. Journal of Urban Economics 47:470–500. 2001 Geography of housing discrimination. Journal of Housing Research 12(2):217–238. Ross, S.L. 2002 Paired testing and the 2000 Housing Discrimination Survey. In Measuring Housing Discrimination in a National Study: Report of a Workshop, A.W. Foster, F. Mitchell,

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Measuring Racial Discrimination and S.E. Fienberg, eds. National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Ross, S.L., and J. Yinger 1999 Does discrimination exist? The Boston Fed study and its critics. In Mortgage Lending Discrimination: A Review of Existing Evidence, M. Turner and F. Skidmore, eds. (Urban Institute Monograph Series on Race and Discrimination.) Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. 2002 The Color of Credit: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology, and FairLending Enforcement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Schafer, R. 1979 Racial discrimination in the Boston housing market. Journal of Urban Economics 6:176–196. Smith, R., and M. Delair 1999 New evidence from lender testing: Discrimination at the pre-application stage. In Mortgage Lending Discrimination: A Review of Existing Evidence, M. Turner and F. Skidmore, eds. (Urban Institute Monograph Series on Race and Discrimination.) Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Squires, G., and W. Velez 1988 Insurance redlining and the process of discrimination. Review of Black Political Economy 16:63–75. Turner, M.A., and F. Skidmore 1999 Mortgage Lending Discrimination: A Review of Existing Evidence. (Urban Institute Monograph Series on Race and Discrimination.) Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Turner, M.A., R.J. Struyk, and J. Yinger 1991 Housing Discrimination in America: Summary of Findings from the Housing Discrimination Study. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Turner, M.A., F. Freiberg, E. Godfrey, C. Herbig, D.K. Levy, and R.R. Smith 2002 All Other Things Being Equal: A Paired Testing Study of Mortgage Lending Institutions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Turner, M.A., S.L. Ross, G.C. Galster, and J. Yinger 2002 Discrimination in Metropolitan Housing Markets: National Results from Phase I of HDS2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Wienk, R., C.E. Reid, J.C. Simonson, and F.J. Eggers 1979 Measuring Racial Discrimination in American Housing Markets: The Housing Practices Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Wyly, E.K., and S.R. Holloway 1999 The new color of money: Neighborhood lending patterns in Atlanta revisited. Housing Facts and Findings 1(2):1–11. Yinger, J. 1986 Measuring racial discrimination with fair housing audits: Caught in the act. American Economic Review 76:881–893. 1995 Closed Doors, Opportunities Lost: The Continuing Costs of Housing Discrimination. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 1996 Discrimination in mortgage lending: A literature review. In Mortgage Lending, Racial Discrimination, and Federal Policy, J. Goering and R. Wienk, eds. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

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Measuring Racial Discrimination LABOR MARKETS Altonji, J.G., and R. Blank 1999 Race and gender in the labor market. Handbook of Labor Economics 3:3143–3259. Altonji, J.G., and U. Doraszelski 2002 The Role of Permanent Income and Demographics in Black/White Differences in Wealth. Yale University Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper No. 850. Available: http://www.library.yale.edu/socsci/egcdp850.txt [January 29, 2004]. Arrow, K. 1973 The theory of discrimination. In Discrimination in Labor Markets, O.A. Ashenfelter and A. Rees, eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Baldwin, M.L., and W.G. Johnson 1996 The employment effects of wage discrimination against black men. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49(January):302–316. Becker, G.S. 1971 The Economics of Discrimination, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bendick, M., Jr., C. Jackson, and V. Reinoso 1994 Measuring employment discrimination through controlled experiments. Review of Black Political Economy 23:25–48. Black, D.A. 1995 Discrimination in an equilibrium search model. Journal of Labor Economics 13(2):309–334. Bobo, L.D., and S.A. Suh 2000 Surveying racial discrimination: Analyses from a multiethnic labor market. In Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles, L.D. Bobo, M.L. Oliver, J.H. Johnson, Jr., and A. Valenzuela, Jr., eds. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Borjas, G.J., and S.G. Bronars 1989 Consumer discrimination and self-employment. Journal of Political Economy 97(3):581–606. Bowlus, A.J., and Z. Eckstein 2002 Discrimination and skill differences in an equilibrium search model. International Economic Review 43(4):1309–1345. Braddock, J.H., and J.M. McPartland 1987 How minorities continue to be excluded from equal employment opportunities: Research on labor market and institutional barriers. Journal of Social Issues 43:5–39. Cain, G.G. 1986 The economic analysis of labor market discrimination: A survey. In Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 1, O. Asherfelter and R. Layard, eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier/ North-Holland. Cross, H., G. Kenney, J. Mell, and W. Zimmerman 1990 Employer Hiring Practices: Differential Treatment of Hispanic and Anglo Job Seekers. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Darity, W.A., Jr., and P.L. Mason 1998 Evidence on discrimination in employment: Codes of color, codes of gender. Journal of Economic Perspectives 12:63–90. Dempster, A. 1988 Employment discrimination and statistical science. Statistical Science 3:149–161. Donohue, J.J., and J. Heckman 1991 Continuous versus episodic change: The impact of civil rights policy on the economic status of blacks. Journal of Economic Literature 29:1603–1643.

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Measuring Racial Discrimination Heckman, J.J. 1998 Detecting discrimination. Journal of Economic Perspectives 12:101–116. Heckman, J.J., and B.S. Payner 1989 Determining the impact of federal antidiscrimination policy on the economic status of blacks: A study of South Carolina. American Economic Review 79(1):138–177. Heckman, J.J., and P. Siegelman 1993 The Urban Institute audit studies: Their methods and findings. In Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measurement of Discrimination in America, M. Fix and R.J. Struyk, eds. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Kirschenman, J., and K.M. Neckerman 1991 “We’d love to hire them, but…” The meaning of race for employers. In The Urban Underclass, C. Jencks and P.E. Peterson, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Lundberg, S.J., and R. Startz 1983 Private discrimination and social intervention in competitive labor markets. American Economic Review 73:340–347. Oliver, M., and T. Shapiro 1995 Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge. Shulman, S., and W. Darity, Jr. 1989 The Question of Discrimination: Racial Inequality in the U.S. Labor Market. Middletown, CN: Wesleyan University Press. Turner, M.A., M. Fix, and R.J. Struyk 1991 Opportunities Denied and Opportunities Diminished: Racial Discrimination in Hiring. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Wilson, W.J. 1987 The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.