The following HTML text is provided to enhance online
readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML.
Please use the page image
as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.
Measuring Racial Discrimination
Heckman, J.J. 1998 Detecting discrimination. Journal of Economic Perspectives 12:101–116.
Heckman, J.J., and B.S. Payner 1989 Determining the impact of federal antidiscrimination policy on the economic status of blacks: A study of South Carolina. American Economic Review 79(1):138–177.
Heckman, J.J., and P. Siegelman 1993 The Urban Institute audit studies: Their methods and findings. In Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measurement of Discrimination in America, M. Fix and R.J. Struyk, eds. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Kirschenman, J., and K.M. Neckerman 1991 “We’d love to hire them, but…” The meaning of race for employers. In The Urban Underclass, C. Jencks and P.E. Peterson, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Lundberg, S.J., and R. Startz 1983 Private discrimination and social intervention in competitive labor markets. American Economic Review 73:340–347.
Oliver, M., and T. Shapiro 1995 Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.
Shulman, S., and W. Darity, Jr. 1989 The Question of Discrimination: Racial Inequality in the U.S. Labor Market. Middletown, CN: Wesleyan University Press.
Turner, M.A., M. Fix, and R.J. Struyk 1991 Opportunities Denied and Opportunities Diminished: Racial Discrimination in Hiring. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Wilson, W.J. 1987 The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.