Appendix B
Biographical Sketches

REBECCA M. BLANK (Chair) is dean of the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, the Henry Carter Adams Collegiate Professor of Public Policy, and professor of economics. Her research focuses on the interaction among the macroeconomy, government antipoverty programs, and the behavior and well-being of low-income families. Her publications include Social Protection vs. Economic Flexibility: Is There a Trade Off?, which compares the social protection programs in the United States and other industrialized countries, and It Takes a Nation: A New Agenda for Fighting Poverty, which analyzes recent discussion about poverty and public policy in the United States. Professor Blank joined the Ford School faculty after serving as a member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisors in Washington, D.C. A graduate of the University of Minnesota, Professor Blank received a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


JOSEPH G. ALTONJI is the Thomas DeWitt Cuyler Professor of Economics at Yale University. He has held previous faculty positions at Columbia University and Northwestern University. Professor Altonji is also a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is a fellow of the Econometric Society, served on the board of editors of the American Economic Review and as coeditor of the Journal of Human Resources, and is currently an associate editor of Econometrica. He received B.A. and M.A. degrees in economics from Yale University and a Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University. Professor Altonji specializes in labor economics and applied econometrics. In recent years, he has focused on the role of family background, school characteristics, and curriculum in the link between edu-



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Measuring Racial Discrimination Appendix B Biographical Sketches REBECCA M. BLANK (Chair) is dean of the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, the Henry Carter Adams Collegiate Professor of Public Policy, and professor of economics. Her research focuses on the interaction among the macroeconomy, government antipoverty programs, and the behavior and well-being of low-income families. Her publications include Social Protection vs. Economic Flexibility: Is There a Trade Off?, which compares the social protection programs in the United States and other industrialized countries, and It Takes a Nation: A New Agenda for Fighting Poverty, which analyzes recent discussion about poverty and public policy in the United States. Professor Blank joined the Ford School faculty after serving as a member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisors in Washington, D.C. A graduate of the University of Minnesota, Professor Blank received a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. JOSEPH G. ALTONJI is the Thomas DeWitt Cuyler Professor of Economics at Yale University. He has held previous faculty positions at Columbia University and Northwestern University. Professor Altonji is also a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is a fellow of the Econometric Society, served on the board of editors of the American Economic Review and as coeditor of the Journal of Human Resources, and is currently an associate editor of Econometrica. He received B.A. and M.A. degrees in economics from Yale University and a Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University. Professor Altonji specializes in labor economics and applied econometrics. In recent years, he has focused on the role of family background, school characteristics, and curriculum in the link between edu-

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Measuring Racial Discrimination cation and labor market outcomes. He has looked at race and sex differences in employment and earnings. He is also studying the extended family as a source of support, the value of job seniority, the effectiveness of private schools, the effect of a school voucher program on public school students, black–white differences in wealth holdings, the determination of work hours, and econometric methods. ALFRED BLUMSTEIN is the J. Erik Jonsson University Professor of Urban Systems and Operations Research and former dean (from 1986 to 1993) at the Heinz School of Public Policy and Management of Carnegie Mellon University. He also directs the National Consortium on Violence Research. He has had extensive experience in both research and policy with the criminal justice system. He served on the President’s Crime Commission in 1966–1967 as director of its Task Force on Science and Technology. He has chaired National Academy of Sciences panels on research on deterrent and incapacitative effects, on sentencing, and on criminal careers. On the policy side, from 1979 to 1990, he chaired the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency, the state’s criminal justice planning agency, and he served on the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing from 1986 to 1996. His degrees from Cornell University include a bachelor of engineering physics and a Ph.D. in operations research. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1998. Dr. Blumstein is a fellow of the American Society of Criminology, was the 1987 recipient of the society’s Sutherland Award for “contributions to research,” and was the president of the society in 1991–1992. His research over the past 20 years has covered many aspects of criminal justice phenomena and policy, including crime measurement, criminal careers, sentencing, deterrence and incapacitation, prison populations and racial disproportionality, demographic trends, juvenile violence, and drug enforcement policy. LAWRENCE BOBO is professor of Afro-American studies and sociology and director of graduate studies in sociology at Harvard University. He was born in Nashville, Tennessee, and grew up in Los Angeles. He received a B.A. in sociology from Loyola Marymount University in 1979 and both the M.A. (1981) and Ph.D. (1984) in sociology from the University of Michigan. From 1984 through 1990 he was in the sociology department at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. From 1990 through spring of 1997 he was in UCLA’s sociology department, where he also served, at various times, as associate chair, program director for survey research, and director of the Center for Research on Race, Politics and Society. His research interests constitute a fusion of race and ethnic relations (particularly the experience of African Americans in the post–World War II period), social psychology, public opinion and survey research methods: or, for lack of a more felici-

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Measuring Racial Discrimination tous phrase: racial attitudes. He is co-author of Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations (1987). He has been a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences and a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation. He has served on the Board of Directors for the Social Science Research Council, the Executive Council’s of the Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research, the American Association for Public Opinion Research, the Association of Black Sociologists, the General Social Survey Board of Overseers, and the National Science Foundation Sociology Review Panel. He edited the Special Issue on Race of the journal Public Opinion Quarterly (Spring 1997). CONSTANCE F. CITRO is a senior program officer for the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT). She is a former vice president and deputy director of Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., and was an American Statistical Association/National Science Foundation research fellow at the U.S. Census Bureau. For the committee, she has served as study director for numerous projects, including the Panel to Review the 2000 Census, the Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, the Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance, the Panel to Evaluate the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the Panel to Evaluate Microsimulation Models for Social Welfare Programs, and the Panel on Decennial Census Methodology. Her research has focused on the quality and accessibility of large complex microdata files and analysis related to income and poverty measurement. She is a fellow of the American Statistical Association. She received a B.A. degree from the University of Rochester and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in political science from Yale University. MARILYN DABADY is a study director with CNSTAT. Her main areas of interest are interpersonal and intergroup relations; prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination; and organizational behavior. She has conducted experimental research in social and cognitive psychology and has contributed to several National Academies reports on education and military recruitment. In addition to her duties as study director for this panel, Dr. Dabady also works with the Committee on the Youth Population and Military Recruitment. She received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in psychology from Yale University. DANELLE J. DESSAINT (project assistant) was a staff member of CNSTAT. Her projects included the Panel on Formula Allocations, State Children’s Health Insurance Program, Elder Abuse, and Institutional Research Board studies. She has a B.A. in communications from Wingate University (Wingate, NC) and formerly worked as an editor at Tribune Media Services (Glens Falls, NY).

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Measuring Racial Discrimination JOHN J. DONOHUE III, the William H. Neukom Professor of Law at Stanford Law School, is an economist/lawyer who has used large-scale statistical studies to estimate the impact of law and public policy in a wide range of areas, from civil rights and employment discrimination law to school funding and crime control. Professor Donohue is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Hamilton College and received a J.D. from Harvard and a Ph.D. in economics from Yale. In addition to his current appointment at Stanford, he has been on the faculty or visited at the law schools of Harvard, Yale, the University of Chicago, Northwestern, Cornell, and the University of Virginia and was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in Behavioral Sciences in 2000–2001. He is the editor of the volume Foundations of Employment Discrimination Law (Foundation Press, 2nd ed., 2003), and the following are among his major articles on issues involving racial discrimination: “The Schooling of Southern Blacks: The Roles of Social Activism and Private Philanthropy, 1910–1960,” Quarterly Journal of Economics (with James Heckman and Petra Todd, 2002, pp. 225–268); “The Impact of Race on Policing and Arrests,” Journal of Law and Economics (with Steven Levitt, 2001, pp. 367–394); “Employment Discrimination Law in Perspective: Three Concepts of Equality,” 92 Michigan Law Review 2583 (1994); “The Changing Nature of Employment Discrimination Litigation,” 43 Stanford Law Review 983 (1991; with Peter Siegelman); and “Continuous versus Episodic Change: The Impact of Civil Rights Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks,” 29 Journal of Economic Literature 1603 (December 1991; with James Heckman). ROBERTO FERNANDEZ is the William F. Pounds Professor of Behavioral Policy Science at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology Sloan School of Management. His expertise lies in organizational process, social networks, hiring, turnover, and diversity. His research and teaching focuses on economic sociology, organizational behavior, social stratification, race, and ethnic relations. Among his current projects are networks and hiring and Internet-based recruitment. Recent published research includes How Much Is That Network Worth? Social Capital in Employee Referral Networks (with Emilio Castilla); Social Capital: Theory and Research (2001); Social Capital at Work: Networks and Employment at a Phone Center (with Emilio Castilla and Paul Moore); American Journal of Sociology, 2000; “Skill Biased Technological Change: Evidence from a Plant Retooling,” American Journal of Sociology (2001). STEPHEN E. FIENBERG is Maurice Falk University Professor of Statistics and Social Science in the Department of Statistics, the Center for Automated Learning and Discovery, and the Center for Computer and Communications Security at Carnegie Mellon University. He is a member of the

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Measuring Racial Discrimination National Academy of Sciences and currently serves on the advisory committee of the National Research Council’s Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. He is a past chair of CNSTAT and has served on several of its panels. He has published extensively on statistical methods for the analysis of categorical data and methods for disclosure limitation. His research interests include the use of statistics in public policy and the law, surveys and experiments, and the role of statistical methods in census taking. SUSAN T. FISKE is professor of psychology at Princeton University, having taught on the faculties of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and Carnegie Mellon University. A 1978 Harvard Ph.D., she received an honorary doctorate from the Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, in 1995. She has authored over 150 journal articles and book chapters; she has edited 7 books and journal special issues. Her graduate text with Shelley Taylor, Social Cognition (1984; 2nd ed., 1991), defined the subfield of how people think about and make sense of other people. Her 2004 text, Social Beings: A Core Motives Approach to Social Psychology, describes people’s most relevant evolutionary niche as social groups, with core motives (such as belonging) that enable people to adapt. Her research has focused on how people choose between category-based (stereotypic) and individuating impressions of other people, as a function of power and interdependence. Her current research shows that social structure predicts distinct kinds of bias against different groups in society, some more disrespected and others more disliked. Her expert testimony in discrimination cases includes one cited by the U.S. Supreme Court in a 1989 landmark case on gender bias. In 1998, she also testified before President Clinton’s Race Initiative Advisory Board. Dr. Fiske won the 1991 American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, Early Career, in part for the expert testimony. She also won, with Glick, the 1995 Allport Intergroup Relations Award from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues for work on ambivalent sexism. Among other elected offices, Dr. Fiske was president of the American Psychological Society for 2002–2003. She edited, with Daniel Gilbert and Gardner Lindzey, the Handbook of Social Psychology (4th ed., 1998) and with Daniel Schacter and Carolyn Zahn-Waxler, the Annual Review of Psychology (Vols. 51–60, 2000–2009). She has served on the boards of Scientific Affairs for the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, Annual Reviews Inc., the Social Science Research Council, and the Common School in Amherst. MARISA A. GERSTEIN is a research assistant with CNSTAT. She has worked on a diverse number of projects, including panels on elder mistreat-

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Measuring Racial Discrimination ment, nonmarket accounts, research and development statistics, and the 2000 and 2010 censuses. She is a coeditor of Statistical Issues in Allocating Funds by Formula, the final report issued by the Panel on Formula Allocations. She graduated from New College of Florida with a B.A. in sociology. GLENN C. LOURY is currently university professor, professor of economics, and director of the Institute on Race and Social Division at Boston University. Previously he taught economics at Harvard University, Northwestern University, and the University of Michigan. He earned a B.A. in mathematics at Northwestern University and holds a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Professor Loury has made scholarly contributions to the fields of welfare economics, game theory, industrial organization, natural resource economics, and the economics of income distribution. He has been a scholar in residence at Oxford University, Tel Aviv University, the University of Stockholm, the Delhi School of Economics, the Institute for the Human Sciences in Vienna, and the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. Professor Loury has received a Guggenheim Fellowship to support his work. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Econometric Society and was elected vice president of the American Economics Association for 1997. His most recent book, The Anatomy of Racial Inequality, appeared in February 2002 from the Harvard University Press. SAMUEL R. LUCAS is currently an associate professor of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. His research and teaching interests lie in social stratification, sociology of education, methods, and statistics. Professor Lucas has served on the Editorial Board of Sociology of Education, as a consulting editor for the American Journal of Sociology, and on the sociology advisory panel of the National Science Foundation and as a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Representation of Minority Students in Special Education. He is currently serving on the Technical Review Panel for the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. He has published in Social Forces, Sociology of Education, and the American Journal of Sociology and coauthored Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth with five colleagues in the Sociology Department at Berkeley, which received a Gustavus Myers Center Award for the Study of Human Rights in North America in 1997. His book on tracking, titled Tracking Inequality: Stratification and Mobility in American High Schools, received the Willard Waller Award in 2000 for the most outstanding book in the sociology of education for 1997, 1998, and 1999. He is completing a book on the effects of race and sex discrimination in the United States. DOUGLAS S. MASSEY is professor of sociology and public policy at the

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Measuring Racial Discrimination Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. He formerly served on the faculties of the University of Chicago and the University of Pennsylvania. He is the coauthor of numerous books and articles on racial segregation, discrimination, and immigration, including the award-winning book American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. JANET L. NORWOOD is a counselor and senior fellow at the New York Conference Board, where she chairs the Advisory Committee on the Leading Indicators. She served as U.S. commissioner of labor statistics from 1979 to 1992 and then was a senior fellow at the Urban Institute until 1999. She chaired the Advisory Council on Unemployment Compensation from 1993 to 1996 and from 1992 to 1999 was a member of CNSTAT. She has been a member of the Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences and has served as chair or as a member of several committee panels. She chairs the Advisory Committee for the Bureau of Transportation Statistics and serves as a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors to the National Center for Health Statistics. She holds a B.A. from Douglass College and an M.A. and a Ph.D. from Tufts University and has received honorary LL.D.’s from Rutgers, Harvard, Carnegie Mellon, and Florida International universities. She is a fellow and past president of the American Statistical Association, a member and past vice president of the International Statistical Institute, an honorary fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, and a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and the National Association of Business Economists. JOHN E. ROLPH is professor of statistics in the Department of Information and Operations Management at the Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California. He also holds faculty appointments in the mathematics department and in the law school at the University of Southern California. He previously was on the research staff of the RAND Corporation. He has also held faculty positions at University College London, Columbia University, the RAND Graduate School for Policy Studies, and the Health Policy Center of RAND/University of California at Los Angeles. He received A.B. and Ph.D. degrees in statistics from the University of California at Berkeley. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Statistical Association, and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. He is currently chair of CNSTAT of the National Academies and is a member of the CNSTAT Panel on Operational Test Design and Evaluation of the Interim Armored Vehicle. His research interests include empirical Bayes methods and the application of statistics to legal and public policy issues.