cation and labor market outcomes. He has looked at race and sex differences in employment and earnings. He is also studying the extended family as a source of support, the value of job seniority, the effectiveness of private schools, the effect of a school voucher program on public school students, black–white differences in wealth holdings, the determination of work hours, and econometric methods.


ALFRED BLUMSTEIN is the J. Erik Jonsson University Professor of Urban Systems and Operations Research and former dean (from 1986 to 1993) at the Heinz School of Public Policy and Management of Carnegie Mellon University. He also directs the National Consortium on Violence Research. He has had extensive experience in both research and policy with the criminal justice system. He served on the President’s Crime Commission in 1966–1967 as director of its Task Force on Science and Technology. He has chaired National Academy of Sciences panels on research on deterrent and incapacitative effects, on sentencing, and on criminal careers. On the policy side, from 1979 to 1990, he chaired the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency, the state’s criminal justice planning agency, and he served on the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing from 1986 to 1996. His degrees from Cornell University include a bachelor of engineering physics and a Ph.D. in operations research. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1998. Dr. Blumstein is a fellow of the American Society of Criminology, was the 1987 recipient of the society’s Sutherland Award for “contributions to research,” and was the president of the society in 1991–1992. His research over the past 20 years has covered many aspects of criminal justice phenomena and policy, including crime measurement, criminal careers, sentencing, deterrence and incapacitation, prison populations and racial disproportionality, demographic trends, juvenile violence, and drug enforcement policy.


LAWRENCE BOBO is professor of Afro-American studies and sociology and director of graduate studies in sociology at Harvard University. He was born in Nashville, Tennessee, and grew up in Los Angeles. He received a B.A. in sociology from Loyola Marymount University in 1979 and both the M.A. (1981) and Ph.D. (1984) in sociology from the University of Michigan. From 1984 through 1990 he was in the sociology department at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. From 1990 through spring of 1997 he was in UCLA’s sociology department, where he also served, at various times, as associate chair, program director for survey research, and director of the Center for Research on Race, Politics and Society. His research interests constitute a fusion of race and ethnic relations (particularly the experience of African Americans in the post–World War II period), social psychology, public opinion and survey research methods: or, for lack of a more felici-



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