Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. He formerly served on the faculties of the University of Chicago and the University of Pennsylvania. He is the coauthor of numerous books and articles on racial segregation, discrimination, and immigration, including the award-winning book American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

JANET L. NORWOOD is a counselor and senior fellow at the New York Conference Board, where she chairs the Advisory Committee on the Leading Indicators. She served as U.S. commissioner of labor statistics from 1979 to 1992 and then was a senior fellow at the Urban Institute until 1999. She chaired the Advisory Council on Unemployment Compensation from 1993 to 1996 and from 1992 to 1999 was a member of CNSTAT. She has been a member of the Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences and has served as chair or as a member of several committee panels. She chairs the Advisory Committee for the Bureau of Transportation Statistics and serves as a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors to the National Center for Health Statistics. She holds a B.A. from Douglass College and an M.A. and a Ph.D. from Tufts University and has received honorary LL.D.’s from Rutgers, Harvard, Carnegie Mellon, and Florida International universities. She is a fellow and past president of the American Statistical Association, a member and past vice president of the International Statistical Institute, an honorary fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, and a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and the National Association of Business Economists.

JOHN E. ROLPH is professor of statistics in the Department of Information and Operations Management at the Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California. He also holds faculty appointments in the mathematics department and in the law school at the University of Southern California. He previously was on the research staff of the RAND Corporation. He has also held faculty positions at University College London, Columbia University, the RAND Graduate School for Policy Studies, and the Health Policy Center of RAND/University of California at Los Angeles. He received A.B. and Ph.D. degrees in statistics from the University of California at Berkeley. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Statistical Association, and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. He is currently chair of CNSTAT of the National Academies and is a member of the CNSTAT Panel on Operational Test Design and Evaluation of the Interim Armored Vehicle. His research interests include empirical Bayes methods and the application of statistics to legal and public policy issues.

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