B

Behavior

discriminating, effect of psychological mechanisms on measures of, 100–101

Behavioral indicators of discrimination, 9–10, 162–185

black and white Americans’ perceptions of discrimination and ambivalent attitudes about race, 182–185

challenge of direct measurement of discrimination, 163–165

scale measures used in surveys, 175–180

sources of observational data, 165–175

Behaviors

assessment of traffic-violating, 193–194

imperfect relationship of attitudes to, 168–169

Benefits of profiling, 200–201

Biases, reporting, 170–171

Biological definition of race, 25–26

Black Like Me, 78n

Blacks’ perceptions of discrimination, 182

BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics

Brookings Institution, 48

Brown v. Board of Education, 152

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 45, 173, 209, 216, 253

C

Causal inferences

counterfactuals and potential outcomes, 78–81

drawing, 78–88

illustrating causality, 80–81

roles of randomization and manipulation, 83–85

smoking and lung cancer, 86–87

study design and statistical methods, 81–83

weighing evidence from multiple studies, 85–88

Causation, not prediction, 199–200

Census data, 191–192

Citizen surveys, 194

Civil Rights Act of 1964, 16, 48, 87

Title VI, 152

Title VII, 50–51, 64, 244–245

Civil Rights Act of 1968, 106

Civil Rights Act of 1991, 52

Civil rights cases, rules for combining multiracial data for, 218

Civil War, 228

Combining features of laboratory and audit studies, 110–112

Combining multiracial data for civil rights cases

rules for, 218

Commissioned papers, 19

Committee on National Statistics, 16, 210

Comparisons, internal departmental, 194

Concept of cumulative discrimination, 225–227

cumulative disadvantage and racial discrimination, 225–227

current legal standards, 226

defining, 225

episodic discrimination, 226

transmission of, 226

See also Cumulative discrimination

Concepts, 23–70

defining discrimination, 4–5, 39–54

defining race, 2–3, 25–38

theories of discrimination, 55–70

Consequences of a racially biased society

cumulative disadvantage and racial discrimination, 231–233

Constitutional Convention of 1787, 27

Contexts in which cumulative discrimination may occur

cumulative disadvantage and racial discrimination, 227–233

Costs of profiling, 200–201

Counterfactuals and potential outcomes, 78–81

CPS. See Current Population Survey

Criminal justice, 46–47

life-course theory of cumulative disadvantage, 233–234

Cumulative disadvantage, 68–69

across domains, 224, 229–231

across generations, 223–224

across processes within a domain, 224

avenues through which cumulative discrimination may occur, 227–233

broader consequences of a racially biased society, 231–233

concept of cumulative discrimination, 225–227



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