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Appendix A
Highlights of Early U.S.-Soviet Scientific Relations (1725–1957)


Mikhail Lomonosov, founder of Moscow State University, and Benjamin Franklin gain recognition as the fathers of U.S.-Russian scientific relations.


Literature is exchanged between Russian and American scientific societies.


Individual scientists begin to correspond.


American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia and Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg elect honorary foreign members.


First scientific exchange visits are held.


American scientists travel to Russia to learn about explorations of Siberia and the Arctic Sea.


Russian mathematicians, naturalists, and linguists attract the attention of American scientists.


Systematic contacts develop as university networks and specialized scientific research centers emerge.


Astronomy school is founded in Russia, and Pulkovo Observatory attracts American physicists and astronomers to spend extended periods working in Russia.


U.S.-Russian ties in astronomy grow.


U.S. optical firm, Alvin and Company, constructs a large telescope-refractor for the Pulkovo Observatory.

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