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Appendix B
Agreement on the Exchange of Scientists between the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1959)

In accordance with the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Exchanges in the cultural, technical and educational fields dated January 27, 1958 (Section I, Paragraph 2 and Section IX, Paragraphs 1, 2 and 3, of the Agreement) and with the purpose of promoting further scientific cooperation between American and Soviet scientists, the National Academy of Sciences of the USA on the one hand, and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the other, hereby conclude the following Agreement:

Exchange of Scientists

Article 1

The National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR will send approximately 20 persons each from among prominent American and Soviet scientists (at least one-half of whom are to be members of the respective Academies) during 1959–1960 to deliver lectures and conduct seminars on various problems of science and technology as well as for the purpose of studying research work in progress in the USA and the USSR.

Article 2

The National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1959–1960 will organize, on a reciprocal basis,



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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation Appendix B Agreement on the Exchange of Scientists between the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1959) In accordance with the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Exchanges in the cultural, technical and educational fields dated January 27, 1958 (Section I, Paragraph 2 and Section IX, Paragraphs 1, 2 and 3, of the Agreement) and with the purpose of promoting further scientific cooperation between American and Soviet scientists, the National Academy of Sciences of the USA on the one hand, and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the other, hereby conclude the following Agreement: Exchange of Scientists Article 1 The National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR will send approximately 20 persons each from among prominent American and Soviet scientists (at least one-half of whom are to be members of the respective Academies) during 1959–1960 to deliver lectures and conduct seminars on various problems of science and technology as well as for the purpose of studying research work in progress in the USA and the USSR. Article 2 The National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1959–1960 will organize, on a reciprocal basis,

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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation visits of American and Soviet scientists to acquaint themselves with research conducted in the USA and the USSR (Appendix 1). Article 3 The National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR agree to exchange scientists in 1959–1960 for conducting scientific research and for specialization for periods of up to one year (Appendix 2). Article 4 The exchange of scientists provided for in Articles 2 and 3 of this Agreement may be expanded, reduced, or changed in the course of the fulfillment of the Agreement, by mutual consent between the two Academies. Article 5 When sending scientists in accordance with Articles 2 and 3 of this Agreement, the sending Academy will notify the receiving Academy at least three months in advance as to the problems of interest to the respective scientists. The sending Academy will also communicate all necessary information concerning the scientists and will indicate the dates desired, the duration of the visit, and the scientific institutions which the scientists would like to visit. If visiting scientists propose to give lectures, the subjects thereof are to be indicated. Upon the receiving Academy’s acceptance of scientists, the sending Academy will inform the receiving Academy at least 10 days in advance of the date of departure. Article 6 The National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, in addition to the scientific exchanges provided for in Articles 1, 2, and 3 of this Agreement, will invite (on a reciprocal basis) scientists to important congresses, conferences, meetings, and other scientific undertakings of mutual interest. For this purpose the Academies will exchange twice a year a schedule of such congresses, conferences, etc. Article 7 The National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR agree on the desirability of conducting, in the USSR

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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation and the USA, joint symposia on current scientific problems in specialized fields. An organizing committee consisting of representatives of both Academies is to be created for preparing such symposia. A working staff is to be established by the Academy of the country in which the symposium is to be held. Each Academy shall have the right to publish the proceedings of the symposium in its own language. Article 8 The National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR will assist each other on a reciprocal basis in establishing relations between scientific institutions and organizations, archives and libraries, the work of which is related to that of the Academies or is coordinated by them. The Academies will also develop an exchange of scientific publications. Financial Provisions Article 9 In all cases, the sending side will defray the travel expenses of its scientists to and from their main destination. The receiving side will defray travel expenses within its country if these expenses are directly connected with the purpose of the visits provided for in Articles 1, 2, and 3 of this Agreement. Article 10 The receiving side will provide, free of charge, to the scientists of the other Academy who have arrived on the basis of Articles 1, 2, and 3 of this Agreement, living quarters (hotel accommodations or rooms) and medical aid. Scientists’ salaries (stipends) will be paid by the sending side. Article 11 Each Academy of Sciences will provide, free of charge, to the scientists of the opposite side who have arrived on the basis of this Agreement opportunities to conduct research in scientific institutions, libraries, and archives. Article 12 The receiving side will defray the expenses connected with the acquisition of materials, apparatus, literature, photocopies, microfilms, etc., within the program of work agreed upon for the visiting scientists.

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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation Article 13 The expenses of sending scientists to participate in scientific congresses, conferences, and other undertakings conducted in accordance with Article 6 of this Agreement, as a rule, will be defrayed by the sending side, if there is no special agreement to the contrary. Article 14 Expenses incurred in sending scientists to the joint symposia provided for in Article 7 of this Agreement will be defrayed by the sending Academy. All expenses connected with preparing and conducting joint symposia will be defrayed by the Academy of the country in which the symposium is held. Conclusion Article 15 The duration of this Agreement shall be two years from the date it comes into effect. Article 16 The Articles of this Agreement may be altered in part by mutual agreement of the Academies. Article 17 Upon the expiration of this Agreement the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR will discuss the question of scientific exchanges for a subsequent period. Article 18 This Agreement has been signed this 9th day of July, 1959, in two copies each, in the English and Russian languages, the texts in both languages having identical force. On behalf of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA On behalf of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Detlev W. Bronk, President of the National Academy of Sciences USA A. Nesmeyanov, Academician of the President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR

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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation Appendix 1 I. Preferable visits of scientists of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR to study research work conducted in the USA. 1) The study of the latest American spectroscopic apparatus. 1 person for 1 month 2) The study of research work in the field of the theory and practice of automatic control (the theory and practice of automatic regulation, information theory, the theory of relay-action devices, technical facilities in automation and telemechanics). 2 persons for 1 month 3) The study of theoretical and experimental work on durability, plasticity, dynamic problems of plasticity and aeroelasticity, and gas dynamics. 1 person for 1 month 4) The study of work being done in the field of the synthesis of natural and biologically important compounds. 2 persons for 1 month 5) The study of latest researches in the field of microbiology and cytology. 1 person for 1 month 6) The study of research in the field of the biology of antibiotics, vitamins, stimulants of plant growth. 2 persons for 1 month 7) The study of scientific work in the field of photosynthesis. 1 person for 1 month 8) The study of electron-microscope research in different fields of biology. 1 person for 1 month 9) The study of research work in the field of solid state physics and low temperature techniques. 1 person for 1 month

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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation 10) The study of research work in the field of radioastronomy. 1 person for 1 month 11) The study of research work in the field of the physical chemistry of polymers. 1 person for 1 month 12) The study of research work in the field of the biochemistry of cancer. 2 persons for 1 month 13) The study of research work in the field of organ and tissue transplantation. 1 person for 1 month 14) The study of research work in the field of epidemiology and the control of influenza. 1 person for 1 month II. Preferable visits of scientists of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA to study research work conducted in the USSR. 1) Radioastronomy; photoelectric techniques for linear measurements in astronomy. 1 person for 1 month 2) Probability and stochastic processes. 1 person for 1 month 3) Solid state physics and low temperature techniques. 1 person for 1 month 4) Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids; physical chemistry of proteins. 1 person for 1 month 5) Cosmic ray studies. 1 person for 1 month

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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation 6) High pressure and high temperature chemistry. 2 persons for 1 month 7) Thermodynamics and physical chemistry of igneous rocks. 1 person for 1 month 8) Microbiology and cytology. 2 persons for 1 month 9) Physiology and biology of the nervous system. 1 person for 1 month 10) Biochemistry of cancer. 2 persons for 1 month 11) Organ and tissue transplantation. 1 person for 1 month 12) Limnology. 1 person for 1 month 13) Weather prediction. 1 person for 1 month 14) Epidemiology and control of influenza. 1 person for 1 month

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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation Appendix 2 I. Preferable visits of scientists of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR to conduct research and specialized scientific work in the USA for periods of up to one year. 1) The study of radiospectroscopy and related fields. 1 person for 5 months 2) The study of new trends and research methods in the fields of steroid compounds, stereochemistry and the chemistry of isoprenoids. 1 person for 6 months 3) The study of research work in the field of high-molecular compounds. 1 person for 5 months 4) The study of experimental work related to the theory of metallurgical processes. 1 person for 5 months 5) The study of work in the field of information theory. 1 person for 6 months 6) Research work to be conducted in biochemistry. 1 person for 5 months II. Visits of scientists of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA to conduct research and specialized scientific work (in the USSR for periods of up to one year). 1) Solar physics. 1 person for 5 months 2) Non-linear systems and differential equations including applications to mechanical and electric systems. 1 person for 6 months

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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation 3) Conditioned reflexes; especially of primates. 1 person for 5 months 4) Physiology of stress (environmental and emotional). 1 person for 5 months 5) Celestial mechanics. 1 person for 5 months 6) Physical chemistry of high polymers. 1 person for 6 months

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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation Appendix 3 Categories and monthly salaries (stipends) of scientists commissioned to the USSR and to the USA in accordance with Articles 1, 2 and 3 of the Agreement Scientific position USSR Monthly salaries of scientists of the USA USA Monthly salaries of scientists of the USSR 1. Members of Academies of Sciences or leading scientists recommended by the Academies. 5,000 rubles $500.00 2. Directors of scientific institutions and higher educational establishments and their assistants. 4,000 rubles $400.00 3. Heads of departments, laboratories, sections and senior scientific workers. 3,500 rubles $350.00 4. Junior scientific workers. 2,500 rubles $250.00