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Appendix F
Annex 2 to the Agreement on Cooperation in Science, Engineering, and Medicine between the Russian Academy of Sciences and the U.S. National Academies (2002)

RUSSIAN-AMERICAN COOPERATION IN COUNTERTERRORISM

The U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences, recognizing the urgent need for collaborative science and technology-based efforts across the broad spectrum of areas related to prevention, response, and mitigation of terrorism, will undertake a new joint program under the guidance of Russian and American standing committees. The committees will organize joint studies on how to cope effectively with emerging threats and challenges related to terrorism. The program will provide an independent avenue for scientists and specialists to perform studies and analyses, to exchange data and findings, to hold workshops, seminars, and conferences, to train specialists, to educate representatives of the media and other relevant organizations, and to recommend future cooperative programs and projects between appropriate organizations.

Areas of particular interest for this effort may include, but are not necessarily limited to:

  • Radiological terrorism, including protection of radioactive sources and wastes;

  • Access by terrorists to nuclear materials and technologies and the security of nuclear materials and facilities;

  • Bioterrorism against both humans and the food supply, including preventing access by terrorists to dangerous pathogens and application of



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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation Appendix F Annex 2 to the Agreement on Cooperation in Science, Engineering, and Medicine between the Russian Academy of Sciences and the U.S. National Academies (2002) RUSSIAN-AMERICAN COOPERATION IN COUNTERTERRORISM The U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences, recognizing the urgent need for collaborative science and technology-based efforts across the broad spectrum of areas related to prevention, response, and mitigation of terrorism, will undertake a new joint program under the guidance of Russian and American standing committees. The committees will organize joint studies on how to cope effectively with emerging threats and challenges related to terrorism. The program will provide an independent avenue for scientists and specialists to perform studies and analyses, to exchange data and findings, to hold workshops, seminars, and conferences, to train specialists, to educate representatives of the media and other relevant organizations, and to recommend future cooperative programs and projects between appropriate organizations. Areas of particular interest for this effort may include, but are not necessarily limited to: Radiological terrorism, including protection of radioactive sources and wastes; Access by terrorists to nuclear materials and technologies and the security of nuclear materials and facilities; Bioterrorism against both humans and the food supply, including preventing access by terrorists to dangerous pathogens and application of

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Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation new technologies for prevention and detection of terrorist incidents and for responses to them; Chemical terrorism, including prevention of access by terrorists to dangerous chemicals and application of new technologies for prevention and detection of terrorist incidents and for responses to them; Electromagnetic terrorism and the prevention of damage to electronic equipment sensitive to electromagnetic effects; Safety of vulnerable industrial and energy infrastructures and transportation facilities; Cyberterrorism, including education and training of specialists; Improvement and harmonization of the international and national legal basis for combating terrorism; The social, economic, and ethnic roots of terrorism. In furtherance of the above-mentioned activities, the two committees will commission papers and analyses in specific areas of high priority involving American and Russian specialists with relevant expertise. Likely initial topics will be cyber, radiological, and biological terrorism. The committees will consist of up to ten members each. The chairs and members of the committees will be approved by the U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences. Their activities will be appropriately coordinated with other interacademy activities and with intergovernmental programs.