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ticularly as such linkages enhance the education process and equip graduates to assume responsibilities in such organizations. They will identify successful programs supported by government and by industry, as well as innovative approaches of higher educational institutions that could serve as models for encouraging stronger institutional linkages of this type.

  • Technology Transfer Centers: The academies will support the development of technology transfer centers within the Russian Academy of Sciences designed to strengthen the ties of industrial enterprises with production facilities in Russia that are in search of improved and new technologies with Russian research organizations that have the relevant research capabilities. The initial emphasis will be on research requirements for enterprises in the fields of natural resource development and petrochemical processing. Also to be explored are new opportunities for the Russian Academy of Sciences to respond to technology needs of enterprises in the fields of biotechnology, metallurgy, chemical engineering, and conversion of military production lines.

  • Small Innovative Firms: The academies will continue to assess the factors that lead to business success for small high-tech firms, and especially firms located in the science cities of Russia. The need to give greater emphasis to the requirements of industry, and particularly Russian industry (market pull), in addition to the current emphasis on technology push, will be of high priority.

  • Environmental Protection: The academies will continue efforts to reduce the adverse environmental consequences of industrial development. Of particular interest is the role of environmental non-governmental organizations in contributing to governmental decision-making at the national and local levels.

The academies will share the results of these and related interacademy activities with other interested organizations, including the International Research Council and the Council of Engineering Academies and Technical Societies.

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