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emphasized the importance of having scientists work closely with industry. “Effective applied research requires scientists to spend sufficient time in the plants of their industrial clients to understand their actual needs and to identify their specific problems. More often than not, the problems revealed could not have been perceived in the laboratory. Research targeted in this way can be both innovative and cost-effective.”

Under the interacademy program, U.S. and Russian specialists have concentrated on two major efforts—the development of a new innovation center at the RAS Institute of Geology and the expansion of an established center at the RAS Institute of Control Sciences. The program aims to strengthen connections between the centers’ researchers and existing or potential industrial clients through workshops, consultations, and improved electronic networking capabilities. Both centers have significantly expanded their customer bases since the partnership began. The interacademy effort has brought new attention within Russia to opportunities for improving the technological capabilities of Russian industry, participants said.

For three years the Rutter Foundation in San Francisco has supported the interacademy effort in this area. Additional funding has been provided by the International Sciences and Technology Center in Moscow, the Civilian Research and Development Foundation in Arlington, Va., and the Russian Aluminum Co.

The National Academies provide science, engineering, and medical advice to the federal government under a congressional charter granted to the National Academy of Sciences in 1863.

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