Factors Inhibiting Innovation (in order of importance)
Shortage of own funds
Shortage of funds from government
Long payoff period
Excessive perceived risks
Low solvent demand for new products
Low innovation potential
Deficiencies in legislation
Low consumer demand
Lack of skilled personnel
Underdeveloped innovation infrastructure
Underdeveloped technology market
Lack of information on market
Lack of information on technology
Uncertainty in timing of innovation
Resistance to innovation
Legal Framework for Promoting Innovation
State Support for Small Enterprises in Russia (Law no. 88-F3, June 14, 1995)
Budget Code of Russia (Law no. 145-F3, July 31, 1998)
Tax Code of Russia (Law no. 146-F3, July 31, 1998)
Status of Science Cities of Russia (Law no. 70-F3, April 7, 1999)
Science and State Science-Technology Policy (Law no. 127-F3, August 23, 1996)
Protection of the Environment (Law no. 7-F3, January 10, 2002)
Source: Centre for Science Research and Statistics (2003) and, for legal framework, Martyushov (2003).
The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Schweitzer, Glenn E. "
Appendix I: Innovation in the Russian Federation (2001) ."
Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
Please select a format:
As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.