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the evolution of a knowledge-based economy in Russia (workshop held in August 2001).

In addition to providing scientific enrichment for both countries, U.S.-Russian scientific cooperation through many channels over several decades undoubtedly contributed to the eventual unraveling of the Soviet Union. The sharp contrast between the openness and rigorous peer review of research activities in the West and the inward-oriented research approaches in the Soviet Union made an impression on many Soviet officials and researchers, who began to question the compatibility of authoritarianism and scientific progress. Then in the 1980s, Soviet visitors to the West witnessed how personal computers were becoming standard equipment in offices and laboratories, while Russian schools could not even offer hands-on computer experiences for students. In the well-known Siberian science city of Akademgorodok, for example, the schools were able to find a few computers only because concerned parents employed at the Computer Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences diverted to the schools computers that would not be missed during inventories (NRC, 1988c: 3). In short, Soviet political and scientific leaders became painfully aware that their centralized planning system was not in tune with the more effective approaches to managing technologies that were fueling economic growth around the world.

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