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tific contacts that are briefly touched on in Appendix A. (Appendix B sets forth the text of the first interacademy agreement that was signed in 1959. For contrast, Appendix C provides the more diverse text for the interacademy agreement signed in 2003.) From 1961 to 1979, 10 additional two-year agreements were signed to continue the program of scientific cooperation until 1981. In that year, as discussed later in this chapter, adjustments were made in the program because of the internal exile in Russia of nuclear physicist and dissident Andrey Sahkarov, but the program continued nevertheless uninterrupted.1

Soon, the Bolshoi and Kirov ballet companies became familiar attractions in the United States. Leading American musicians, writers, and sports figures began touring the Soviet Union. American students enrolled at Moscow State University, while Soviet professors gave lectures on U.S. campuses. And portable exhibitions portraying life in each of the countries were erected in some of their distant cities.

Meanwhile, less ambitious technology-oriented exchanges were a priority of the Soviet government, but the U.S. government frequently with-held approval of these exchanges as bargaining chips to gain Soviet acquiescence to cultural and informational activities, which were the U.S. priorities. At the same time, the U.S. government hoped that the exposure of Soviet scientists and engineers, along with specialists from other fields, to U.S. achievements would contribute to the slow evolution of the Soviet Union in the direction of American society.

Short-term exchange visits of up to several weeks by individual scientists characterized the earliest years of interacademy cooperation. In general, the participants from both sides were highly qualified researchers. In the late 1960s, longer-term visits of up to one year became commonplace. The annual level of exchanges reached 167 person-months in each direction in the mid-1970s, but then declined to 50 person-months in the early 1980s because of budget cuts at the National Science Foundation, the financial sponsor.2 Also in the 1960s, the two academies began to organize bilateral workshops on frontier topics in mathematics, physics, earth sciences, life sciences, and other disciplines. These workshops were highly visible events, and they served as signals to the scientific communi-


For a discussion of the early days of U.S.-Soviet cooperation see Byrnes (1976:76) and NAS (1977). A more recent review of exchange programs is presented in Richmond (2003).


For a detailed discussion of the early interacademy exchanges, see Schweitzer (1992).

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