through changing signal timing and dynamic message signs that change the speed limit or advise drivers of detours or closures. The output also will provide guidance and recommendations directly to drivers before travel, when routes are being selected, and then in their vehicles once travel has begun.

Likewise, in 2020 responses to weather-related emergencies and evacuations due to weather hazards will take full advantage of advances in meteorology and traffic management through integrated decision support systems. This will be a significant improvement over the current “swivel-chair integration” approach, in which emergency managers consult separate information sources for weather, traffic, and emergency response practices. Further, these integrated decision support systems will be available to help determine optimum evacuation routes for individual drivers, just as the Sarno family was able to do en route.

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