[12] <http://www.oceandrilling.org/COMPLEX/Default.html>.

[13] NSF OCE Newsletter, Spring 2000.

[14] JOI/USSAC Report. United States Participation in the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, September 2001.

[15] NSF OLPA release of Dr. Bordogna’s remarks at Chikyu launching ceremony in Kobe, Japan, January 18, 2002.

[16] NSF OCE Newsletter, Fall 2002.

[17] NSF Press Release (NSF PR 03-41), April 22, 2003.

[18] Program Solicitation (NSF 03-586) US Science Support Program Associated with the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (USSSP-IODP), August 4, 2003.



The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be the world’s highest-energy accelerator facility. The United States is involved in construction of the LHC accelerator and two particle detectors, ATLAS and CMS. The LHC is a high-energy particle-physics facility designed to collide protons at teravolt (TeV) energies. The LHC, in Geneva at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), is one of the largest international scientific enterprises yet undertaken. LHC participants include the 20 member states of CERN,5 the United States, Canada, India, Russia, Japan, and physicists of many other countries. Designed to fit inside the tunnel constructed for CERN’s Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP), the LHC heralds a new age in high-energy physics. By providing a 10-fold increase in energy and a 1,000-fold increase in intensity over current colliders, the LHC will enable scientists “to study the collisions of the tiny quarks locked deep inside protons [1],” an order of magnitude smaller than has been studied until now. Over 1,000 superconducting magnets, cooled to temperatures below that of outer space and sustaining a magnetic field more than 16,000 times that of Earth, will accelerate the protons to the necessary energies [1]. In addition to the magnets, precision detectors able to withstand high levels of radiation must be developed and built to “observe” the collision products. Two large detectors—a toroidal LHC apparatus (ATLAS) and the compact muon solenoid (CMS)—are key elements of the LHC project and involve the collaborative efforts of more than 4,000 people in 45 countries [1]. The funding for US participation in the LHC comes from two sources: the Department of Energy (DOE) and NSF. DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Labora-


Member states of CERN: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and UK.

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