[1] Victor Cook (NSF). NSF Management and Oversight of LIGO. Large Facility Projects Best Practices Workshop (NSF), Sept. 21, 2001.

[2] LIGO chronology. LIGO Press & Media Kit. Available at <>.

[3] Jeffrey Mervis. Funding of two science labs revives pork barrel vs. peer review debate. The Scientist 5[23]:0, Nov. 25, 1991.

[4] Robert Buderi. Going after gravity: How a high-risk project got funded. The Scientist 2[17]:1.

[5] Malcolm W. Brown. Experts clash over project to detect gravity wave. New York Times, April 30, 1991, p. C1.

[6] FY 1992-FY 1993 National Science Foundation authorization. Hearing before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, March 13, 1991. CIS-NO: 91-H701-51.

[7] M. Mitchell Waldrop. Of politics, pulsars, death spirals—and LIGO. Science 249:1106-1108.

[8] NRC Physics Survey Committee, Physics Through the 1990s: A Summary. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1986.

[9] Rick Boucher. Introduction of National Science Foundation authorization act amendments of 1991. Congressional Record, Vol. 137, No. 70, May 9, 1991.

[10] John Travis. LIGO: A $250 million gamble. Science 260:612-614.

[11] Christopher Anderson. LIGO director out in shakeup. Science 263:1366.

[12] William T. Broad. Big science squeezes small-scale researchers. New York Times, December 29, 1992, p. C1.

[13] Robert Irion. LIGO’s mission of gravity. Science 288:420-423.

[14] LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) available at <>. (Official LIGO website: <>.)

[15] W. Wayt Gibbs. Ripples in spacetime. Scientific American 28:62.

[16] Correspondence with Barry Barish, who consulted with Rainer Weiss and Kip Thorne.



The George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) will be a geographically distributed national network of shared experimental earthquake engineering research equipment sites linked by a high-performance Internet system; it will consist of three major components:

  • Next-generation earthquake engineering research equipment (such as shake tables, a tsunami wave basin, geotechnical centrifuges, large-scale laboratory facilities, and mobile and permanently installed field equipment) distributed around the country at 15 universities.

  • NEESgrid, a high-performance network that will connect the remote sites and enable remote equipment operation and experimental viewing,

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