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EarthScope, a geographically distributed geophysical and geodetic instrument array, will seek to deploy a large and diverse array of instrumentation over North America to learn “how the continent was put together, how it is moving now, and what is beneath it” . EarthScope will comprise the US Seismic Array (USArray), the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), and the satellite-based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). The first three will be funded through the NSF MREFC account, and the latter is planned to be jointly developed with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). US Array and SAFOD are referred to as phase I, and PBO as phase II. See Table C-2 for a timeline of the major developments.