[1] Background Information: Atacama Large Millimeter Array. National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

[2] Robert P. Chase. 1990. Millimeter Astronomers Push for New Telescope. Science 249:1504.

[3] Alan H. Barrett. Report of Subcommittee on Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wavelength Astronomy. April 1983 Astronomy Advisory Committee, National Science Foundation; MMA Memo No. 9.

[4] M. Mitchell Waldrop. 1983. Astronomers Ponder a Catch-22. Science 220:698.

[5] Al Wootten. Historical Information About the MMA. Jan. 25, 1999. Available at <>.

[6] Recommended Site for the Millimeter Array. 1998. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, May.

[7] Frazer Owen. Interoffice Memo. 1982.The Concept of a Millimeter Array. Very Large Array, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, September 10. MMA Memo No. 1.

[8] Paul A. Vanden Bout, director, NRAO. 1997. FY98 Budget – National Science Foundation, Subcommittee on Basic Research, House Committee on Science, April 9.

[9] LSA/MMA Feasibility Study, April 1998. Available at <>.

[10] Charles E. Blue and Richard West. 2003. U.S. and European ALMA Partners Sign Agreement. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Press Release, Feb. 25. Available at <>.

[11] Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction. National Science Foundation Fiscal Year 2004 Budget Request.

[12] S. Radford and L. Nyman. 2001. ALMA Project Book, Version 5.5, Chapter 14; July 25. Chajnantor Site Studies: Overview available at <>.

[13] National Research Council. 1991.The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

[14] Correspondence from NSF, October 2003.

[15] Approved Minutes of 367th NSB Meeting (NSB 02-53), March 14, 2002.



EarthScope, a geographically distributed geophysical and geodetic instrument array, will seek to deploy a large and diverse array of instrumentation over North America to learn “how the continent was put together, how it is moving now, and what is beneath it” [1]. EarthScope will comprise the US Seismic Array (USArray), the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), and the satellite-based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). The first three will be funded through the NSF MREFC account, and the latter is planned to be jointly developed with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). US Array and SAFOD are referred to as phase I, and PBO as phase II. See Table C-2 for a timeline of the major developments.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement