References

Band PR, Spinelli JJ, Ng VT, Moody J, Gallagher RP. 1990. Mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort of commercial airline pilots. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 61(4):299–302.


Caldwell GG, Kelley D, Heath CW Jr. 1980. Leukemia among participants in military maneuvers at a nuclear bomb test: A preliminary report. Journal of the American Medical Association 244(14):1575–1578.

Caldwell GG, Kelley D, Zack M, Falk H, Heath CW Jr. 1983. Mortality and cancer frequency among military nuclear test (Smoky) participants, 1957 through 1979. Journal of the American Medical Association 250(5):620–624.

Cucinotta FA. 2003 (January 15). Study of Cataracts in Astronauts Paper presented at meeting of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine in Extreme Environments, Cape Canaveral, FL.

Cucinotta FA, Manuel FK, Jones J, Iszard G, Murrey J, Djojonegro B, Wear M. 2001. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts. Radiation Research 156(5 Pt 1):460–466.


Darby SC, Kendall GM, Fell TP, Doll R, Goodill AA, Conquest AH, Jackson DA, Haylock RGE. 1993. Mortality and Cancer Incidence 1952-1990 in UK Participants in the UK Atmospheric Nuclear eapons Tests and Experimental Programmes. Oxon, UK: National Radiological Protection Board.

DTRA (Defense Threat Reduction Agency). 1999. Radiation Exposure in U.S. Atmospheric Nuclear eapons Testing, (Nuclear Test Personnel Review Program). [Online]. Available: http://www.dtra.mil/news/fact/nwntprpre.html.


Eheman CR, Garbe P, Tuttle RM. 2003. Autoimmune thyroid disease associated with environmental thyroidal irritation. Thyroid. 2003;13(5):453-64.


Fischer CL. 2003 (January 15). Cancer Incidence in the U.S. Astronaut Population. Paper presented at meeting of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine in Extreme Environments, Cape Canaveral, FL.

Fox AJ, Collier PF. 1976. Low mortality rates in industrial cohort studies due to selection for work and survival in the industry. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 30: 225-230.


Gladeck F, Johnson, A. 1996. For the Record: A History of the Nuclear Test Personnel Review Program 1976-1993. Defense Nuclear Agency: DNA-6041F.


Hamm PB, Billica RD, Johnson GS, Wear ML, Pool SL. 1998. Risk of cancer mortality among the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) participants. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 69(2):142–144.



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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health References Band PR, Spinelli JJ, Ng VT, Moody J, Gallagher RP. 1990. Mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort of commercial airline pilots. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 61(4):299–302. Caldwell GG, Kelley D, Heath CW Jr. 1980. Leukemia among participants in military maneuvers at a nuclear bomb test: A preliminary report. Journal of the American Medical Association 244(14):1575–1578. Caldwell GG, Kelley D, Zack M, Falk H, Heath CW Jr. 1983. Mortality and cancer frequency among military nuclear test (Smoky) participants, 1957 through 1979. Journal of the American Medical Association 250(5):620–624. Cucinotta FA. 2003 (January 15). Study of Cataracts in Astronauts Paper presented at meeting of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine in Extreme Environments, Cape Canaveral, FL. Cucinotta FA, Manuel FK, Jones J, Iszard G, Murrey J, Djojonegro B, Wear M. 2001. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts. Radiation Research 156(5 Pt 1):460–466. Darby SC, Kendall GM, Fell TP, Doll R, Goodill AA, Conquest AH, Jackson DA, Haylock RGE. 1993. Mortality and Cancer Incidence 1952-1990 in UK Participants in the UK Atmospheric Nuclear eapons Tests and Experimental Programmes. Oxon, UK: National Radiological Protection Board. DTRA (Defense Threat Reduction Agency). 1999. Radiation Exposure in U.S. Atmospheric Nuclear eapons Testing, (Nuclear Test Personnel Review Program). [Online]. Available: http://www.dtra.mil/news/fact/nwntprpre.html. Eheman CR, Garbe P, Tuttle RM. 2003. Autoimmune thyroid disease associated with environmental thyroidal irritation. Thyroid. 2003;13(5):453-64. Fischer CL. 2003 (January 15). Cancer Incidence in the U.S. Astronaut Population. Paper presented at meeting of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine in Extreme Environments, Cape Canaveral, FL. Fox AJ, Collier PF. 1976. Low mortality rates in industrial cohort studies due to selection for work and survival in the industry. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 30: 225-230. Gladeck F, Johnson, A. 1996. For the Record: A History of the Nuclear Test Personnel Review Program 1976-1993. Defense Nuclear Agency: DNA-6041F. Hamm PB, Billica RD, Johnson GS, Wear ML, Pool SL. 1998. Risk of cancer mortality among the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) participants. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 69(2):142–144.

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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health Hamm PB, Nicogossian AE, Pool SL, Wear ML, Billica RD. 2000. Design and current status of the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 71(6):564–570. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1994. Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 1996. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 1999. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2000. The Five Series Study: Mortality of Military Participants in U.S. Nuclear Weapons Tests. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2001a. Exploring the iological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2001b. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2001c. Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for Exploration Missions. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2002. Veterans and Agent Orange: HerbicideDioxin Exposure and Acute Myelogenous Leuemia in the Children of Vietnam Veterans. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2003a. Characteriing Exposure of Veterans and Agent Orange and Other Herbicides Used in Vietnam: Interim Findings and Recommendations. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2003b. Veterans and Agent Orange. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. McMonigal KA, Braverman LE, Dunn JT, Stanbury JB, Wear ML, Hamm PB, Sauer RL, Billica RD, Pool SL 2000. Thyroid function changes related to use of iodinated water in the U.S. Space Program. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 71:1120-5. McMonigal KA. 2003 (March 31). Thyroid Disease and Exposure to Iodine During Space Flight. Paper presented at meeting of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine in Extreme Environments, Washington, DC. Nicogossian AE, Huntoon CL, Pool SL. 1993. Space Physiology and Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 1967. Radiological Factors in Manned Space Flight. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1980. The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ioniing Radiation (BEIR III) Final Report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 1990. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ioniing Radiation (BEIR V). Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC 2003. A Review of the Dose Reconstruction Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health Pearce N. 1996. Mortality and Cancer Incidence in New ealand Participants in United ingdom Nuclear eapons Tests in the Pacific: Supplementary Report. Wellington, NZ: Wellington School of Medicine. Pearce N, Winkelmann R, Kennedy J, Lewis S, Purdie G, Slater T, Prior I, Fraser J. 1997. Further follow-up of New ealand participants in United Kingdom atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the Pacific. Cancer Causes and Control 8:139–145. Peterson LE, Pepper LJ, Hamm PB, Gilbert SL. 1993. Longitudinal Study on Astronaut Health: Mortality in the years 1959-1991. Radiation Research 133:257–264. Robinette CD, Jablon S, Preston TL. 1985. Mortality of the Nuclear eapons Test Participants. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Thompson DE, Mabuchi K, Ron E, Soda M, Tokunaga M, Ochobuko S, Sugimoto S, Ikeda T, Terasaki M, Izumi S. 1994. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors. Radiation Research 137(suppl.):S17–S67. Wear M. 2003 (January 15). The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health. Paper prepared for meeting of the IOM Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine in Extreme Environments, Cape Canaveral, FL. Wolff J, Chaikoff IL. 1949. The temporary nature of the inhibitory action of excess iodide on organic iodine synthesis in the normal thyroid. Endocrinology 45:504–513.

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