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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health A Biographical Sketches of Committee and Staff DAVID E. LONGNECKER, M.D., (chair) is senior vice president and corporate chief medical officer and the Robert Dunning Dripps Professor of Anesthesia at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Longnecker received his M.D. in 1964 from Indiana University School of Medicine, where he completed residency training in anesthesiology in 1967. Following a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Special Research Fellowship in Physiology, he continued clinical and laboratory research at the NIH Clinical Center, where he served as a clinical associate from 1968 to 1970. He has received numerous NIH research grants and a Research Career Development Award for research involving the effects of anesthetics on microcirculation, oxygen delivery to tissue, oxygen therapeutics, endothelium-dependent circulatory control, and health services research. Dr. Longnecker is the author and coauthor of more than 175 scientific abstracts and original scientific articles, 29 chapters, and five textbooks. Dr. Longnecker was previously the Harold Carron Professor of Anesthesiology at the University of Virginia and, from 1970 to 1973, assistant professor of anesthesiology and physiology at the University of Missouri. Dr. Longnecker is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and previously chaired the IOM Committee on Fluid Resuscitation for Combat Casualties. ALFRED F. CONNORS, JR., M.D., is currently the chair of the Department of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University’s MetroHealth Medical Center. Prior to accepting that position he was director of the Division of Health Services Research and Outcomes Evaluation at the University of Virginia, where he also acted as coclinical director of the Medical Management Program and associate director of the Center for Minority Health. A graduate of St. Louis University, Dr. Connors received his medical degree from the Medical College of Ohio. He is board-certified in internal medicine, critical care medicine, and pulmonary diseases. Dr. Connors previously taught at Case Western Reserve Uni-
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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health versity, where he received the Kaiser Teaching Excellence Award as Best Clinical Teacher in 1991. He serves on the editorial boards of three prestigious journals, and is the author of more than 100 professional publications, including a book on differential diagnosis and 15 book chapters. His current research is supported by grants from the Department of Defense, Department of Veterans Affairs, several institutes at the National Institutes of Health, and Agency for Health Research and Quality. ROY L. DEHART, M.D., M.P.H., is director of the Vanderbilt Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Dr. DeHart completed medical school and his internship at the University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, and his residency in aerospace medicine at Johns Hopkins University and the United States Air Force (USAF) School of Aerospace Medicine. He is board certified in aerospace medicine and occupational medicine. In his assignment as chief of aerospace medicine for Air Force Systems Command, Dr. DeHart maintained an active role with the National Aviation and Space Administration. He served as a medical monitor of manned space flights as well as on a number of research panels addressing future manned space operations. As a senior aerospace medical officer he commanded the Air Force’s Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio; his final assignment was as commander of the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine. After 23 years in the Air Force, he shifted his activities to the field of occupational medicine and became interested in the phenomena known as multiple chemical sensitivity. He is a senior aviation medical examiner for the Federal Aviation Administration and sees both private and commercial pilots for their medical certification. He currently serves on the Presidential Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health. He is the recipient of numerous honors and awards, the most recent being the Knudson Award presented by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Dr. DeHart is the editor of three editions of the textbook Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine, which has been described by reviewers as the premier text in the discipline. R. J. MICHAEL FRY, M.D., is retired from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, where he was head of the cancer section of the biology division. He continues to serve as consultant to the life sciences division of the laboratory and as professor at the University of Illinois. He holds M.B., B.Ch., and M.D. degrees from the University of Dublin, Ireland. Previous appointments include as senior scientist in the division of biology and medicine at Argonne National Laboratory and professor in the Department of Radiology, University of Chicago. He was editor of Radiation Research and continues as a consulting editor. His research focused on the effects, in particular, carcinogenesis, of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation. He is a member of the International Committee on Radiation Protections Committee 1; member of the National Council on Radiation Protection’s Committees 1, 4, 7, 75, and 88; and chairman of the National Research Council’s Board on
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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health Radiation Effects Research. His awards include the Failla and Hartman medals and the Lauriston Taylor lectureship. DANIEL MASYS, M.D., is director of biomedical informatics and professor of medicine at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine. An honors graduate of Princeton University and the Ohio State University College of Medicine, he completed postgraduate training in internal medicine, hematology, and medical oncology at the University of California, San Diego, and the Naval Regional Medical Center, San Diego. Previously, he served as chief of the International Cancer Research Data Bank of the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and from 1986 through 1994 was director of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications. In this capacity, Dr. Masys served as the chief program architect and first director of the National Center for Biotechnology Information established within the National Library of Medicine in 1987 to support molecular databases and computational tools. Dr. Masys is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine in Medicine, Hematology, and Medical Oncology. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, fellow of the American College of Medical Informatics, and member of the Institute of Medicine. He has served as a consultant to the NASA Life Science Informatics program and is an active, instrument-rated pilot. VAN C. MOW, Ph.D., is Stanley Dicker Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Orthopaedic Bioengineering and chairman of the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Engineering School of Columbia University and director of the New York Orthopaedic Hospital Research Laboratory at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Dr. Mow earned an undergraduate degree in aeronautical engineering and a Ph.D. in applied mechanics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He has edited six monographs on orthopedic biomechanics, diarthrodial joint function, cell mechanics, and cellular engineering. He has published more than 650 full-length papers, book chapters, and extended abstracts. He is currently co-editor of the journal Osteoarthritis and Cartilage and founder of the Journal of Orthopaedic Research. Among his many awards and honors are membership in both the National Academy of Engineering and Institute of Medicine. Dr. Mow is currently a member of both the Committee on Membership and the Russ Prize Committee of the National Academy of Engineering. Currently, he is also a member of the International Steering Committee for the Fourth World Congress of Biomechanics and chairman of the Advisory Committee for the Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institute, Taiwan. TOM S. NEUMAN, M.D., is professor of medicine and surgery and associate director of the department of emergency medical services at the University of California San Diego Medical Center. A graduate of Cornell University, he received his M.D. from the New York University School of Medicine in 1971, followed by his internship and residency in internal medicine at Bellevue Hospi-
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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health tal. Dr. Neuman is board certified in internal medicine, pulmonary disease, occupational medicine, and emergency medicine. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and the American College of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Neuman has been a leader in the field of the physiology and medicine of diving throughout his career and was the editor-in-chief of Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine until July 2002. He is the co-editor of the most widely used textbook of diving medicine and physiology. He previously served on the IOM Committee on Space Medicine. THOMAS F. OLTMANNS, Ph.D., is the Edgar James Swift Professor of Arts and Sciences in the department of psychology at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. He previously served as professor of psychology and psychiatric medicine and director of clinical training in psychology at the University of Virginia. He has also served as professor of psychology at Indiana University. Dr. Oltmanns received his undergraduate degree from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and his Ph.D. at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He has authored 5 books and more than 50 journal articles. Dr. Oltmanns is past president of the Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology and is a consulting editor for the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and a member of the editorial board for Psychological Bulletin and Journal of Personality Disorders. His research has been supported by numerous grants, and he is currently co-principal investigator on a large grant looking at peer assessment of personality traits and pathology. He has served on two different grant review committees for the National Institute of Mental Health and is a member of NASA’s Astronaut Selection Psychiatric Standards Working Group. RUSSELL B. RAYMAN, M.D., M.P.H., is executive director of the Aerospace Medical Association in Alexandria, Virginia, a position he assumed in 1992 after a long and distinguished career in the U.S. Air Force and a brief interlude as manager of medical operations for Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company. Among his many positions in the Air Force were commander of two different hospitals, chief of the medical readiness division in the Office of the Surgeon General, and consultant in aerospace medicine to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs. He has held academic appointments at the University of Texas, San Antonio, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Wright State University, and University of Texas Medical Branch. Dr. Rayman has published more than 50 papers and chapters and 2 books and was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Air Quality in Passenger Cabins of Commercial Aircraft He holds a medical degree from the University of Michigan and a masters of public health from Johns Hopkins University, and is board-certified in both family practice and aerospace medicine. He is also certified in aviation medicine by the Royal College of Physicians (London). He completed the National Aeronautics and Space Agency flight surgeon certification course in 1989 and serves on the agency’s aerospace medicine and occupational health advisory committee.
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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health WALTER M. ROBINSON, M.D., M.P.H., is associate professor of pediatrics and medical ethics at Harvard University. After receiving his M.D. from Emory University in l988, Dr. Robinson spent two years at Boston City Hospital and one year at Johns Hopkins as a pediatric resident. Following one year of work in a neighborhood health center, he returned to a fellowship in pediatric pulmonary medicine at Harvard/Children’s Hospital and also served a fellowship in medical ethics. He received an M.P.H. from Harvard in 1994. Dr. Robinson is board-certified in pediatrics and pediatric pulmonary medicine. He has continued to practice while teaching ethics at the medical school and postgraduate levels and serving on committees appropriate to his expertise. He directs the Harvard Ethics Fellowship Program and serves on the editorial board of Ethics and Behavior. He previously served as a member of the IOM Committee on Space Medicine. ELAINE RON, Ph.D., is a senior scientist and former chief of the Radiation Epidemiology Branch in the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics at the National Cancer Institute. She holds an M.P.H. in health service administration from Yale University and a Ph.D. in epidemiology from the Tel Aviv University. Her research focuses on the carcinogenic effects of radiation exposure and the epidemiology of thyroid cancer. Dr. Ron is a member of Committee 1 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). She also has served as a consultant to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and as an advisor to the NCRP Committee 1-8 on Induction of Thyroid Cancer by Ionizing Radiation. Dr. Ron was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee to study the mortality of military personnel present at atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. She is a fellow of the American Epidemiology Society and a member of the American Thyroid Association and the Radiation Research Society. CAROL SCOTT-CONNER, M.D., Ph.D., is head of the department of surgery at the University of Iowa, Iowa City. Dr. Scott-Conner received her M.D. from the New York University School of Medicine in 1976 and stayed for her surgical residency, which she completed in 1981. After leaving NYU, she joined the faculty at Marshall University and then moved to the University of Mississippi. During her tenure she earned a Ph.D. in anatomy from the University of Kentucky and an M.B.A. from Else School of Management at Millsaps College. Since 1995 she has been a professor and the head of surgery at the University of Iowa. Dr. Scott-Conner is board-certified in surgery and in surgical critical care and is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons. Dr. Scott-Conner has been active on 22 editorial boards, and has authored 5 books and more than 200 original papers, abstracts, reviews, and book chapters. She holds memberships in many elected surgical societies and has frequently served in leadership positions. She received her undergraduate degree in electrical engineering at the
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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She previously served as a member of the IOM Committee on Space Medicine. RHEA SEDDON, M.D., is the assistant chief medical officer for the Vanderbilt Medical Group in Nashville, Tennessee, and a former three-flight veteran astronaut for NASA. As an astronaut, she logged over 722 hours in space. She was a mission specialist on STS-51D and STS-40 and was the payload commander on STS-58. Dr. Seddon also served in several other capacities at NASA, namely as technical assistant to the director of flight crew operations and special advisor for Shuttle/Mir scientific payloads and as a member of NASA’s Aerospace Medical Advisory Committee and the International Bioethics Task Force. After earning a B.A. in physiology at the University of California, Berkeley, and an M.D. from the University of Tennessee, Dr. Seddon went on to complete an internship and residency in general surgery in Memphis. Dr. Seddon’s areas of interest are in emergency medicine and nutrition. DEBORAH R. ZUCKER, M.D., Ph.D., is assistant professor of medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine, clinical investigator in the Department of Medicine’s Division of Clinical Care Research, and a practicing internist in the General Medical Associates clinic at New England Medical Center. Dr. ucker’s research focuses on developing methods to enable widespread practice-based clinical research through the combination of individual patient (N-of-1) studies and is currently evaluating treatments for fibromyalgia. She has also focused on a range of clinical and health policy topics including acute sinusitis, gender, and the presentations of acute myocardial infarction, physicians’ conflicts of interest in managed care, and programs to curb antibiotic resistance. She was assistant director of the New England Medical Center-Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Evidence Based Practice Center and coinvestigator for an AHRQ-sponsored program to train evidence-based practitioners. After receiving her Ph.D. in microbiology and molecular genetics from Harvard University, Dr. ucker received her M.D. from the University of Miami School of Medicine. She has completed postgraduate training in internal medicine, medical ethics, and health services research. IOM Board on Health Sciences Policy Staff FREDERICK J. MANNING, Ph.D., is a senior program officer in the IOM’s Board on Health Sciences Policy and study director. In nine years at IOM he has served as study director for projects addressing a variety of topics, including medical isotopes, potential hepatitis drugs, blood safety and availability, rheumatic disease, resource sharing in biomedical research, occupational safety and health, and chemical and biological terrorism. Before joining IOM, Dr. Manning spent 25 years in the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development
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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health Command, serving in positions that included director of neuropsychiatry at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and chief research psychologist for the Army Medical Department. Dr. Manning earned a Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University in 1970, following undergraduate education at the College of the Holy Cross. ANDREW POPE, Ph.D., is director of the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine. With expertise in physiology and biochemistry, his primary interests focus on environmental and occupational influences on human health. Dr. Pope’s previous research activities focused on the neuroendocrine and reproductive effects of various environmental substances on food-producing animals. During his tenure at the National Academy of Sciences and since 1989 at the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Pope has directed numerous studies on topics that include injury control, disability prevention, biologic markers, neurotoxicology, indoor allergens, and the enhancement of environmental and occupational health content in medical and nursing school curricula. Most recently, Dr. Pope directed studies on priority-setting processes at the National Institutes of Health, fluid resuscitation practices in combat casualties, and organ procurement and transplantation. MELVIN H. WORTH, JR., M.D., is a scholar-in-residence at the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Worth completed his surgery residency at New York University-Bellevue in 1961 and remained on that faculty for 18 years. He founded the Bellevue Trauma Service in 1966 and continued as director until 1979, when he left to become director of surgery at Staten Island University Hospital. He served for 15 years with the New York State Office of Professional Medical Conduct and 8 years as a member of the New York State Hospital Review and Planning Council (for which he was chair in 1993). He is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, American College of Gastroenterology, and International Society for Surgery and holds memberships in the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, Society for Critical Care Medicine, Association for Academic Surgery, New York Surgical Society (for which he was president in 1979), and other academic and professional organizations. Dr. Worth retains his appointment at New York University and is clinical professor of surgery at the State University of New York Downstate (Brooklyn) and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Dr. Worth most recently served as an IOM study staff member to the Committee on Fluid Resuscitation for Combat Casualties and is the senior advisor to the Committee on Creating a Vision for Space Medicine During Travel Beyond Earth Orbit. BENJAMIN N. HAMLIN, B.A., Research Assistant at the Institute of Medicine, received his bachelors degree in biology from the College of Wooster in 1993 and a degree in health sciences from the University of Akron in 1996. He then worked as a surgeon’s assistant in the fields of vascular, thoracic, and gen-
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Review of Nasa’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health eral surgery for several years before joining the National Academies staff in 2000. As a Research Assistant for the Division on Earth and Life Studies at the National Academies, Ben worked with the Board on Radiation Effects Research on projects studying the health effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations on the human body. He has worked on a number of Institute of Medicine studies, including Testosterone and Aging: Clinical Research Directions; Review of NASAs Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health; Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion; Improving Medical Education: Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content in Medical School Curricula, and NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation. Ben is currently pursuing graduate work in the sociomedical sciences. He is also involved with the U.S.-Bangladesh Advisory Council, an organization that promotes governmental cooperation between the United States and Bangladesh on matters of trade and healthcare. NATASHA S. DICKSON has been a senior project assistant with the National Academies’ Institute of Medicine since March 2001. She is a graduate of the John S. Donaldson Technical Institute in Trinidad and Tobago. She gained administrative experience at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, and also worked as an advertising sales representative and reporter for the Trinidad Express Newspapers.
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