stakeholders. The deputy director helped make planning and operational decisions when there was disagreement among other managers; from January 2001 to June 2002, the deputy director also served as acting director during the change of presidential administrations. The associate director for decennial census oversaw all decisions for planning, budget, and operations. Under the associate director, the assistant director for decennial census served as the 2000 census chief operating officer and had direct line responsibility for the Decennial Management Division, the Geography Division, the Decennial Statistical Studies Division (which implemented and evaluated the 2000 Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation Program, or A.C.E.), and the Decennial Systems and Contracts Management Office, which housed the programmers responsible for data processing and supervised contractors for three of the four data capture centers and other contractor operations.

The associate director for field operations oversaw data collection by the Field Division, which at the time of the 2000 census encompassed 12 permanent regional offices, 12 regional census centers, the Puerto Rico area office, 520 temporary local census offices (and 6 offices in Puerto Rico), the National Processing Center in Jeffersonville, Indiana, and the Technologies Management Office (which develops computer-assisted data collection questionnaires and procedures). The Field Division also employed and directed the massive temporary corps of enumerators.

Other Census Bureau divisions involved in the 2000 census included the Population Division and the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division in the demographic programs directorate and the Planning, Research, and Evaluation Division (PRED) in the methodology and standards directorate.

The Bureau developed a variety of mechanisms for internal coordination. An executive-level steering committee for the census, meeting every 2 weeks, was formed in 1997. It included the director, the deputy director, the two principal associate directors, the associate and assistant directors for decennial census and field operations, the associate director for communications, and the congressional affairs office chief. In 2000 the Executive Steering Committee for A.C.E. Policy (ESCAP) was formed to review the plans for the A.C.E., monitor A.C.E. implementation, review A.C.E. evaluation studies, and make recommendations to the director or acting direc-



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