Index to Chapters 1–10

A

Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.), 5, 6–9, 85, 86, 92, 158, 174–209, 227–234 (passim)

See also E-sample;

Poststratification and poststrata;

P-sample

adjustments based on, 6–7, 28–29, 174–184

apportionment, 92, 170

blacks, 6, 181, 227–229, 233, 255, 259

block clusters, 171, 172, 173–174, 187, 192, 203, 204–205, 277

Census Day and, 9, 221, 346

clerical review, 172, 180, 190, 192, 202, 204

correlation bias, 6, 186, 233, 246–247, 257, 259, 266, 344, 346

demographic analysis, 8, 9, 11, 30, 176–177, 181–183, 184, 185, 186, 227–229, 235–240, 260, 277, 330–331, 344–345

design, operations, and adjustment, 171–267

dual-systems estimation (DSE), 158, 159–163, 170, 174, 176, 177, 187–194 (passim), 199–201, 205, 206, 208, 235, 246, 257

duplicate enumeration, 5–8 (passim), 23, 29, 86, 123, 155, 163, 176–182 (passim), 186, 188, 190, 200, 201, 208, 240–241, 343

enumerator errors, 121–123

evaluation research on, 12, 24, 27, 30, 326–327, 330–337 (passim), 350–351

Executive Steering Committee for A.C.E. Policy (ESCAP), 174–175, 176–177, 326–327

gross error, 9, 29–30, 141, 163, 188, 203, 243–244, 252–253, 261, 262, 263, 265, 346

group quarters, 9, 155, 171, 189–190, 200, 201, 240, 252, 265, 346

interviewing procedures, 9, 200, 263, 265, 266, 346

legislation, 8–9

long-form-sample data, imputation, 270, 283, 286, 329, 347

management, organizational structure, 326–330 (passim), 350–351

Master Address File (MAF), 140, 141, 161, 172, 189, 235–236, 277



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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity Index to Chapters 1–10 A Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.), 5, 6–9, 85, 86, 92, 158, 174–209, 227–234 (passim) See also E-sample; Poststratification and poststrata; P-sample adjustments based on, 6–7, 28–29, 174–184 apportionment, 92, 170 blacks, 6, 181, 227–229, 233, 255, 259 block clusters, 171, 172, 173–174, 187, 192, 203, 204–205, 277 Census Day and, 9, 221, 346 clerical review, 172, 180, 190, 192, 202, 204 correlation bias, 6, 186, 233, 246–247, 257, 259, 266, 344, 346 demographic analysis, 8, 9, 11, 30, 176–177, 181–183, 184, 185, 186, 227–229, 235–240, 260, 277, 330–331, 344–345 design, operations, and adjustment, 171–267 dual-systems estimation (DSE), 158, 159–163, 170, 174, 176, 177, 187–194 (passim), 199–201, 205, 206, 208, 235, 246, 257 duplicate enumeration, 5–8 (passim), 23, 29, 86, 123, 155, 163, 176–182 (passim), 186, 188, 190, 200, 201, 208, 240–241, 343 enumerator errors, 121–123 evaluation research on, 12, 24, 27, 30, 326–327, 330–337 (passim), 350–351 Executive Steering Committee for A.C.E. Policy (ESCAP), 174–175, 176–177, 326–327 gross error, 9, 29–30, 141, 163, 188, 203, 243–244, 252–253, 261, 262, 263, 265, 346 group quarters, 9, 155, 171, 189–190, 200, 201, 240, 252, 265, 346 interviewing procedures, 9, 200, 263, 265, 266, 346 legislation, 8–9 long-form-sample data, imputation, 270, 283, 286, 329, 347 management, organizational structure, 326–330 (passim), 350–351 Master Address File (MAF), 140, 141, 161, 172, 189, 235–236, 277

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity matching, 7, 8, 13, 24, 145, 159, 172, 173, 180, 181, 182, 189, 192, 198–199, 202–204, 205, 208, 228, 246, 263, 264, 265, 279, 346 NRC panel mandate, 1, 16 NRC panel recommendations, 261–267, 326–337 (passim), 343–346, 350–352 overcount, 6–7, 8–9, 158, 176, 179–180, 185, 246, 249 Person Duplication Studies, 179, 180, 200, 208, 211, 214-217, 333, 351 population estimates, general, 28–29, 158–159, 171–184, 185–187, 227–229, 244–245, 344 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), 7, 157, 162, 163, 171–174, 176, 178, 187–205 (passim), 208, 209, 212, 227–229, 245–247, 252–253, 260, 343, 345 redistricting, 92, 174–175, 177, 178–179 sex-related data, 8, 183, 229, 255, 283 small areas, 6, 259–260 subnational areas, 6–7, 30, 249, 259 targeted extended search (TES), 173–174, 177, 179, 187, 190, 196, 204–206, 208 time factors, 30, 178, 186, 187, 188, 266 undercount, 6–7, 8–9, 29, 158, 162, 176, 178–179, 180–182, 185, 187, 188, 189, 206, 208, 230–231, 237, 246, 249, 252, 255–257, 260–261, 343, 345 weighting, 171, 187, 194–195, 204–205 A.C.E. Revision II, 5, 6, 7, 158, 174, 185–187, 209–235, 243, 244–245, 253, 258–261 See also Poststratification and poststrata block clusters, 212 clerical review, 215–216 correlation bias, 209, 211, 223–226, 228, 232, 233, 234, 246–247, 250, 254, 257 demographic analysis, 224–233, 244, 253–254, 258–259 duplicate enumeration, 216, 241 gross error, 261 matching, 210, 212, 215, 220–221, 226–228, 230, 246 missing data, 221–223 Native Americans, 222–223, 224, 227–229 NRC panel recommendations, 261, 264, 344 overcount, 158, 209–217, 249–251, 258 population estimates, general, 226–235, 244–245, 254, 259 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES) and, 226–231, 246, 247 P-sample, 209, 218–221, 223–224 sex-related data, 224, 225–226, 228, 246, 248, 255 subnational areas, 223, 243–244, 245, 249, 250–251 time factors, 266–267 undercounts, 158, 185, 209, 217–226, 230–231, 247–248, 249–251, 253–256, 258 Address Control File (ACF), 72–73, 78 Address List Improvement Act, 79 Address lists, general See also Address Control File; Delivery Sequence File; Master Address File global positioning system (GPS), 263 1990 census, 72, 159, 166–167 2000 census, 77–78, 134–151 2010 census, 263 Addresses, general See also Address lists; Block clusters; Census blocks; Geocoding duplicate enumeration, 21, 86, 92 group quarters/special places, 137

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity noncity-style address, 73, 79, 135, 137 Administrative records, 78, 87, 134, 164–165, 215–216 See also Vital statistics census data and local planning, 58 census data and vital statistics, 59 county-level, 131 group quarters, 154–155, 156, 297, 342 long-form-sample data quality assurance, 269, 297 Medicare records, 164 taxes, 78 Advertising and outreach, 3, 26–27, 109–112, 332 See also Telephone follow-up Be Counted, 104, 105, 275–276 Internet, 99, 100, 104, 112, 275 mail response rate and, 3, 107–112 1990 census, 72, 73, 76, 108 privacy concerns addressed, 110–111 private sector uses of census data, 59 television advertising, 107, 109 2000 census, 82, 88, 92, 97, 104, 107–114 Advisory Committee of Professional Associations, 87 African Americans, see Black persons Age characteristics, 8, 55, 58, 63, 75, 85, 164, 170–171, 229, 255, 321 See also Children; Elderly persons complete-count data, 9–10, 34 duplicate enumeration, 241–243 long-form-sample data, imputation, 274, 281, 287 mail return rates, 101, 123 minority youth, 81 nonresponse follow-up, 123 population estimates, 55, 58, 229, 239 Aggregation of data, 9, 164, 348 geographic, 35, 252 NRC panel methodology, 17 poststratum groups, 204 Alaskan Natives, see Native Americans American Community Survey (ACS), 134 long-form sample and, 11, 94–95, 134, 300, 348, 349 NRC panel recommendations, 3, 95, 150, 300–301, 333–334, 339–340, 341–342, 348, 349 small-area data, 3, 95, 340 American Indians, see Native Americans Americans with Disabilities Act, 64 Apportionment, 17, 33, 36–43, 78, 87, 103, 170 A.C.E., 92, 170 black persons, apportionment/redistricting, 43, 47, 52, 54 constitutional mandate, 1, 15, 36, 38, 43 coverage error, 37 deadlines, 36, 103, 170 historical perspectives, 37, 38–39, 42 immigrants, 36, 37–38 overseas residents, U.S. citizens, 38–39, 40 sampling/statistical adjustment, 40–43, 90–91 Supreme Court rulings, 28, 37–43, 90–92, 170 taxes and, 305 uncounted persons imputations, federal court decisions, 40–43 urban/rural, 37 Asians, 174, 227, 239, 241, 307, 311, 314 A.C.E. Revision II, 223, 224, 227–231 long-form-sample data, quality measures, 278 marketing study to assess response, 109 Attitudes and beliefs, see Public opinion B Baker v. Carr, 44–45 Balancing error, 162, 163, 177, 188, 189, 205, 252–253

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity Basic data, see Complete count/complete-count items Basic street address, 146 Be Counted, 104, 105, 275–276 Birth records, 8, 55, 58–60 (passim), 164, 165, 169, 180, 181, 183, 184, 196, 214, 225, 246, 254, 260 postcensal estimates, 6, 8, 28, 169, 182, 183–184, 185, 254–258 Black persons, 8, 75, 85, 164, 241, 246, 312, 313, 315, 316 A.C.E., 6, 181, 227–229, 233, 255, 259 A.C.E. Revision II, 222, 224–225, 227–233, 247, 255 apportionment/redistricting, 43, 47, 52, 54, 303 historical data measures, 303, 304–307, 311 long-form-sample data, quality measures, 273–275, 278, 292–293 mail return rates, 102, 123 marketing study to assess response, 109 nonresponse follow-up, 123 undercounting, 5, 43, 52, 157, 168, 181, 182, 238, 247 Block canvass, 86, 135, 141, 146, 147, 162, 166 Block clusters A.C.E., 171, 172, 173–174, 187, 192, 203, 204–205, 277 A.C.E. Revision II, 212 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), 141, 162, 166–167 Block data, 20, 21, 34, 80, 172, 204, 251, 267 poststrata, 64 redistricting, 53–55, 174–175, 267, 346–347 Blue line, 137, 329 C Census Act (Title 13), 90–91, 149 Census Advisory Committee, 86–87 Census and Administrative Records Duplication Study, 215 Census blocks, 21, 204, 251, 267 See also Block clusters poststrata, 248 traffic analysis zones, 64 Census Day A.C.E., 9, 221, 346 block-level data release, 30 E-sample, 196, 200 movers, 122, 167, 172–173 nonresponse follow-up time limit, 84 operational modifications following, 104 public opinion before/after, 109 redistricting time limit, 36 Census Monitoring Board, 89 Census Plus, 85 Census-taker, see Enumerators Census tracts, 253 banks, use of, 67 funding allocation, 65 geocoding errors, 141 imputations, 239, 242, 275, 282, 291, 292 long-form-sample data items, 34, 80, 291, 292 mail return rates, 102, 222 nonresponse follow-up, 83 Postal Service, use of, 67 redistricting, 53 Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C2SS), 18, 24, 270, 272, 283, 286, 287, 295 Children biennial population estimates, 55 grandchildren, 80, 81 school outreach program, 108 undercounts, 27, 75, 85, 123, 225–226, 253–255 (passim) Clerical review, 118, 154 A.C.E., 172, 180, 190, 192, 202, 204 A.C.E. Revision II, 215–216 1990 census, 72, 74, 125, 126, 167 Clerical Review of Census Duplicates Study, 215

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity Clinton Administration, 88, 90 Coding, 213 See also Geocoding, 19–20, 54–55, 66, 73 group quarters, 137, 152–153, 156, 342 workup/execution of 1990 census, 72, 74 Committee on Adjustment of Postcensal Estimates, 169 Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT), 87, 333 Community Development Block Grants, 63 Commuting and commuters, 65, 66 Complete count/complete-count (basic data) items, 9–11, 34, 59, 127, 269 See also Apportionment; Redistricting consistency of responses, 277–279 historical perspectives, 60 imputation procedures, 131–132, 270, 273, 276, 281–283 missing data patterns, 276–279, 280 quality, general, 281–282, 293 Computer-assisted interviewing (CAI), 200, 270, 326 Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI), 172, 270, 286 Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI), 172, 189, 270, 286 Computer editing, 72, 74, 88, 125 Computer technology, other, 72, 75, 334 See also Data capture; Matching; Optical recognition address files, general, 73, 75, 137-138, 147, 342 contracting out, 3, 115, 119–120, 125 imputation, 11, 74, 88, 92, 98, 125–134, 235, 271, 280 mapping, 66, 73, 75, 147, 342 matching, 167, 172, 180–182, 186, 202, 213, 214, 215, 218, 262, 335 Master Address File (MAF), 137–138 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), error, 169 Confidentiality, see Privacy and confidentiality Congress of the U.S., 2–3, 19, 60, 95, 327 See also Apportionment; Fund allocation; Legislation; Redistricting census deadlines, 9, 88, 89, 103 grandchildren, coverage of, 81 nonresponse follow-up issues, 83, 88–89 political parties, 2, 75, 86, 88–89, 92–93, 94 Content Reinterview Survey, 270, 288, 294 Continuation forms, 130 Contracting and contractors, 12–13, 115 data operations, 3, 115, 119–120, 125 Controlled studies, see Experimental studies Correlation bias, 246 A.C.E., 6, 186, 233, 246–247, 257, 259, 266, 344, 346 A.C.E. Revision II, 209, 211, 223–226, 228, 232, 233, 234, 246–247, 250, 254, 257 Costs and cost-effectiveness advertising and outreach, 108 computer imputation, 11, 133, 134 housing, data on, 272 Master Address File (MAF), 149 1990 census, 75, 76–77, 82–83 nonresponse follow-up, 3, 75, 82–84, 93, 99, 101, 133, 134, 340 NRC panel methodology, 17–18 per household costs, 2, 93, 108 2000 census, general, 22, 82–84, 85, 87, 97, 170, 339

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity 2010 census, NRC recommendations, 340 Counties, 5, 34, 61, 64, 318, 321 administrative records, 131 American Community Survey (ACS), 94 demographic analysis, 55 dress rehearsals, 89, 91 funding allocation, 63, 65 geocoding errors, 141 imputation, 131, 239, 276 Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA), 142, 144, 145 overcount, 249–250 redistricting, 48–54 (passim) undercount, 249–250 Court decisions See also Supreme Court follow-up operations (1990 census), 74 illegal immigrants, apportionment counts, 37–38 overseas residents, apportionment counts, 39, 40 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), 166, 168–170 redistricting, 46, 47–51, 54 statistical methods, use in census, 90 uncounted people, apportionment imputations, 42–43 Coverage evaluation and improvement programs, 5, 11–12, 18, 158, 165 See also Dual-systems estimation; Follow-up; Nonresponse follow-up; Post-Enumeration Survey 1990 census, 158, 166–170 2000 census, 84–87, 122, 123, 157–266 2010 census, 5, 8–9, 75, 87, 263 Current Population Survey (CPS), 24, 58, 165, 254, 295, 296, 310–311, 323, 334, 348, 351 D Data capture, 72, 74, 97, 115–118, 332 See also Optical recognition error rates, 118–119, 125 group quarters, 154 imputation and, 125 person record, 33, 35, 135, 276 Data-defined, 9–11, 34–35, 156 Data editing, 72, 125, 128, 132 Data Preparation Division, see National Processing Center Death records, 8, 55, 58, 59, 164, 169 postcensal estimates, 6, 8, 28, 169, 182, 183–184, 185, 254–258 Delivery Sequence File (DSF), 3–4, 21, 78, 79, 83, 135 Demographic data and analysis, 1–2, 8, 9, 31, 75, 85, 164–165, 269, 273–281 See also Age characteristics; Elderly persons; Immigrants and immigration; Long-form sample; Population groups; Post-Enumeration Survey; Race/ethnicity; Sex-related characterization; Socioeconomic data and analysis; Vital statistics A.C.E., 8, 9, 11, 30, 176–177, 181–183, 184, 185, 186, 227–229, 235–240, 260, 277, 330–331, 344–345 A.C.E. Revision II, 224–233, 244, 253–254, 258–259 aggregation of data, 9, 35, 52, 164, 204, 348 educational attainment, 65, 66, 68 evaluation research, 11–12, 24, 27, 30, 326–327, 330–337 (passim), 350–351 historical perspectives, 164–165, 303 mail response rate, 101–103, 114, 123 marital status, 60, 80, 284, 287, 292, 312, 313, 316

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity migration flows, 59, 68, 69, 164, 181, 344–345 nonresponse follow-up, 114, 123 NRC panel recommendations, 266, 267, 330–331, 344–347 (passim) population estimates, 55 small areas, 55, 59 uses of, 36, 55 Department of Housing and Urban Development, 64 Department of Transportation, 64 Disabled persons, 63, 65, 66 Disaster planning, 65, 66 Domain, race/ethnicity definition, see Table E.3 in text Dress rehearsals, 3, 4, 88–91, 94, 339 duplicate enumeration, 82 funding for, 88–89 multiple mailings, 107 optical data capture, 118 Dual-systems estimation (DSE), 1, 24, 42, 85, 86, 87, 158, 246, 257 A.C.E., 158, 159–163, 170, 174, 176, 177, 187–194 (passim), 199–201, 205, 206, 208, 235, 246, 257 A.C.E. Revision II, 209, 218, 221–224, 246, 257 duplicate enumeration, 42, 176 geographic variations, general, 162–163 imputation, 160, 161, 167–168 Master Address File (MAF) and, 140, 161 matching, 79, 85, 159, 160–163, 170 weighting, 160, 205 Duplicate enumeration, 4–8 (passim), 19, 20, 23, 27–28, 42, 55, 74, 114, 121, 127 See also Matching A.C.E., 5–8 (passim), 23, 29, 86, 123, 155, 163, 176–182 (passim), 186, 188, 190, 200, 201, 208, 240–241, 343 A.C.E. Revision II, 216, 241 ad hoc unduplication, 104 addresses, 21, 86, 92 age factors, 241–243 data capture, 75 dress rehearsal, 82 dual-systems estimation, 42, 176 group quarters, 190, 200, 201, 234 individual blocks, 54 Master Address File (MAF), 4, 21, 82, 92, 104, 105, 137, 138, 141, 145, 146, 147, 161, 192, 240 Person Duplication Studies, 179, 180, 200, 208, 211, 214–217, 333, 351 unduplication, 7, 104, 105, 141, 145, 146, 147, 154, 156, 176, 192, 235–236 E Economic factors, see Costs and cost-effectiveness; Fund allocation; Income data; Private sector; Socioeconomic data and analysis Education, see Public education Educational attainment, 65, 66, 68 Elderly persons demographic analysis, 164 long-form-sample data uses, 62, 68 mail return rate, 102 Medicaid reimbursements, census data use, 62 Medicare records, 164 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 62–63 Employment discrimination, 61, 64 Employment of enumerators follow-up, 1990 census, 73–74, 76 follow-up, 2000 census, 83 hiring, 27, 76 outreach specialists, 107 recruitment, 3, 64, 88, 97–98, 109, 120–124, 340 wages, 83, 121 Employment status, 66 federal employees overseas, apportionment counts, 38–39 long-form, 11, 348, 349

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity Enumerators See also Employment of enumerators; Interviewing procedures A.C.E. and errors, 121–123 advertising to support efforts, 107 effectiveness, 99 errors on questionnaires, 21, 119, 121–122 follow-up, 1990 census, 73–74, 76, 132, 134 follow-up, 2000 census, 120–121, 132, 134, 172 funding allocation, 120 group quarters, 154–155 mail response vs use of, 122–124 movers, treatment of, 172–173 nonresponse follow-up, errors by, 21, 119, 121–122 reinterviewing practices, 22 time factors, 120–123 wages, 121 Environmental risks, 69 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 64 Erroneous enumeration, 19–20, 42, 54, 76, 121–123, 130, 136 See also Correlation bias; Duplicate enumeration; Omissions; Overcount; Undercount A.C.E., 6, 7, 9, 29, 123, 145–146, 159, 160, 163, 178–180, 182, 188, 198, 200, 202, 203, 208, 211–213, 217, 221, 244, 248, 252–253, 256, 259, 262, 265, 344, 345–346 A.C.E. Revision II, 7, 158, 209, 223, 226, 241, 259, 262, 343, 344 dual-system estimation (DSE), 42, 159, 188 group quarters, 154, 155, 252 Master Address File (MAF), 20–21, 27, 28, 137, 144, 145–146, 148 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), 178, 188, 198–199, 203, 208, 211–212, 226, 241, 252–253 Errors and error analysis, 5–6, 17, 19–21, 26, 29, 54, 55, 59, 243–261 See also Correlation bias; Duplicate enumeration; Gross error; Imputation; Matching; Missing data; Overcount; Undercount; Weighting and variance estimation address, 105 balancing error, 162, 163, 177, 188, 189, 205, 252–253 data capture rates, 118–119, 125 defined, 19–20 enumerator vs mail-back forms, 121–123 geocoding errors, 19–20, 54–55, 66, 173–174, 216, 251–252, 257–258, 263 net coverage error, 9, 20, 29, 42, 74, 77, 123, 243–244, 247–248, 346 omissions, 6, 8, 9, 20, 23, 29, 42, 54, 137, 141, 146, 155, 158, 179, 182–183, 188, 209, 217–226, 344 optical recognition vs key from image, 118 E-sample, 85, 159, 160, 162, 166, 167, 173–174, 176, 179, 180, 187, 192–206 (passim), 209, 212, 221, 223, 227, 232, 233, 234–235, 246–247, 253, 256, 257–258, 264, 319, 320, 333, 352 global positioning system (GPS), 263 long-form-sample data quality measures, 270, 277–279, 286–287 Person Duplication Studies, 179, 180, 200, 208, 211, 214–217, 333, 351 Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity Evaluation Follow-up Study (EFU), 180, 208, 209–214, 216, 218, 221–222, 240–241, 246, 256

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity Executive Steering Committee for A.C.E. Policy (ESCAP), 174–175, 176–177, 326–327 Experimental studies, 18, 25, 75, 332, 336–337, 351 administrative records use, 78 mailing package, 81–82 questionnaire design, 81–82, 270 race/ethnicity classification, 323, 324 F Federal employees overseas, apportionment counts, 38–39 Federal government See also Court decisions; Legislation; Supreme Court; specific departments and agencies long-form additional data, agency uses, 61–65 management structure for census, 325–330 metropolitan statistical areas, funding allocations, 64–65 partnership agreements, 107 race/ethnicity, data on, 15, 304–311, 312, 322 Federal Transit Act, 64 Film Optical Sensing Device for Input to Computers (FOSDIC), 115–116 Follow-up See also Nonresponse follow-up cost and time, 3 coverage edit follow-up, 278 coverage improvement follow-up, 121–123 long-form, 10 1990 censuses, 72, 73–74, 75 Foreigners See also Immigrants and immigration Americans overseas, 38–39 temporary visitors, 21, 37 treatment of noncitizens, 37–38 Fund allocation See also Costs and cost-effectiveness American Community Survey (ACS), 95 based on census analysis, 1, 28, 33, 63–65, 179 for census, 3, 26, 76, 92, 93, 101, 104, 107, 264–265, 345 dress rehearsal, 88–89 enumerators, 120 local government, 28, 58, 61, 62–63 Master Address File (MAF), 135 state government, 28, 58, 61, 62, 63, 65 Further Study of Person Duplication (FSPD), 211, 214–220 (passim), 226, 241, 243, 244, 247, 256–257, 261–262 See also Person Duplication Studies G Gender, see Sex-related characterization General Accounting Office, 71, 87, 88, 107, 115, 120, 124, 264–265 Geocoding, 19–20, 54–55, 66, 73, 105, 146, 204, 251, 342 errors, 19–20, 54–55, 66, 173–174, 216, 251–252, 257–258, 263 group quarters, 137, 152–153, 156, 342 special places, 137 targeted extended search (TES), 173–174, 177, 179, 187, 190, 196, 204–206, 208 TIGER, 73, 75, 147–150 (passim), 342 Geographic information system (GIS), 147 Geographic variations, 10, 20, 30, 33, 132, 231, 232, 248–252, 317, 345 See also Maps and mapping; Rural areas; Small areas; Subnational areas; Urban areas dual-systems estimation, 162–163

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity gross coverage error, 19–20, 179, 252–253 Master Address File (MAF), regional participation, 142, 143 questionnaire/mailing package design, 105–106 Glavin v. Clinton, 90 Global positioning system (GPS), 263 Gross error, 5–6, 19–20, 141, 179, 251, 252 A.C.E., 9, 29–30, 141, 163, 188, 203, 243–244, 252–253, 261, 262, 263, 265, 346 A.C.E. Revision II, 261 Master Address File (MAF), 4, 141–142 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), 188, 203, 243–244, 252–253 Group quarters (GQ), 4–5, 33, 93, 98, 137, 151–156, 241, 242, 243, 252 A.C.E., 9, 155, 171, 189–190, 200, 201, 240, 252, 265, 346 address lists, 137, 156, 167, 343 administrative records, 154–155, 156, 297, 342 data capture, 154 definitional issues, 151, 152, 155–156, 520 duplicate enumeration, 190, 200, 201, 234 enumerator interviews, 154–155 geocoding, 137, 152–153, 156, 342 homeless shelters, 151–152 Individual Census Reports, 151 local government issues, 154 Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) Program, 137, 152 long-form-sample data, imputation, 155, 271, 297–301, 348–349 mail response, 153 Master Address File (MAF), 137, 147, 152, 156, 342 matching, 154 missing data, 28, 155, 342, 348–349 NRC panel methodology/conclusions, 18, 31, 155–156, 342–343, 346, 347–348 population estimates, general, 156, 342–343 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), 151, 154, 155, 156, 171, 343 questionnaire design, 151, 154, 155, 156, 343 telephone follow-up, 154–155 usual residence elsewhere, 154 H Handicapped persons, see Disabled persons Hawaiian Natives, see Native Americans Hispanics, 241, 312, 313, 314–315, 318, 319–321, 322–324, 349–350 A.C.E. Revision II, 222, 224–225, 227–233, 247 complete-count data, 34 historical perspectives on coverage, 307, 310–311 household surveys, 58 long-form-sample data quality measures, 34, 273–275, 278, 284, 293 mail return rates, 102, 123 marketing study to assess response, 109 nonresponse, 284 nonresponse follow-up, 123 population estimates, 55, 58, 181, 227–233, 238 private sector uses of census data, 59 questionnaire language, 117, 118 redistricting data files, 53–54 undercount, 157, 181, 182, 247 Historical perspectives blacks, historical data measures, 303, 304–307, 311 census mandate, 1 census overview, 15–16

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity comparison of decennial censuses, 18, 24–25, 27 congressional apportionment, 37, 38–39, 42 demographic analysis, 164–165, 303 long-form, additional data uses, 59–60, 68 mail response rates, 89, 97, 98, 100, 102–103, 104, 107 noncitizens, treatment of, 37–38, 305–306 overseas residents, apportionment counts, 38–39 racial/ethnic measurement, 303, 304–308 redistricting, 43–53 undercounted groups, 27, 42, 157 workup to 1990 census, 71–77, 166–170 workup to 2000 census, 2–3, 18, 71, 77–92 Home Investment Partnership Program, 63 Homeless persons, 21, 151–152 Hot-deck imputation, 128, 271 House of Representatives v. Department of Commerce, 90 Household relationship, 9–10, 59, 60, 132, 222, 223, 280, 283, 347 See also Children Household size, 80–81, 222 See also Group quarters imputation, 127–130 mail return rates, 102 questionnaire design, 105, 127–128, 236 Households, 24, 233 See also Current Population Survey; Housing tenure; Renters; Whole-household/whole-person imputation composition, 200, 202, 203, 276, 277 cost per surveyed, 2, 93, 108 long-form-sample data, imputation, 271 mail response/return rate, 100 matching, 202, 203 member characterization, 80–81 Housing tenure, 9–10, 102, 132, 170–171, 197, 222, 228, 229, 238–239 See also Renters complete-count data, 34 long-form-sample data, imputation, 272, 273, 277–279, 283 Housing Unit Coverage Study, 141, 251–252 Housing units, 5, 76, 80, 105, 172, 189, 252 See also Address lists; Addresses, general; Group quarters; Multiunit structures; Special places Hundred percent data, see Complete count/complete-count items I Immigrants and immigration, 8 See also Foreigners congressional apportionment, 36, 37–38 congressional redistricting, 303 demographic analysis, 59, 164, 165, 181, 184, 254 historical perspectives, 305–307 illegal, 37–38, 59, 164, 165 net migration/immigration, 59, 164, 181, 344–345 postcensal estimates, 6, 8, 28, 169, 182, 183–184, 185, 254–258 students on visas, 21 treatment of noncitizens, 37–38, 164 Immigration and Nationality Act, 307 Immigration and Naturalization Service, 164 Imputation, 10–11, 12, 25, 42–43, 74 age, 274, 281, 287 apportionment, 40–43 census tracts, 239, 242, 275, 282, 291, 292

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity Americans with Disabilities Act, 64 apportionment, constitutional mandate, 1, 15, 36, 38, 43 Census Act (Title 13), 90–91, 149 constitutional mandate, 1 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 62–63 Federal Transit Act, 64 Immigration and Nationality Act, 307 National Origins Act, 307 overseas residents, apportionment counts, 38–39 P.L. 94–171, 53, 273 P.L. 105–18, 88–89 redistricting, 45, 46 Voting Rights Act, 43, 47, 49–53, 61–62, 303 Workforce Investment Act Program and Youth Activities, 63 List/enumerate areas, 130, 239–240, 283, 285, 287, 331 Living Situation Survey, 81 Local area information, 33 See also Counties; Rural areas; Urban areas characterization of areas, census data uses, 33, 58, 115 mail return rate, 94, 103 nonresponse follow-up, 124 Local census office See also Employment of enumerators; Enumerators 1990 census, 74, 76 2000 census, 107, 120–121, 124 Local government, general census coverage, cooperation of, 99, 107, 153 census data, use of, 4 census outreach efforts, 107 Delivery Sequence File, 21 fund allocation, 28, 58, 61, 62–63 group quarters, 154 long-form additional data uses, 61, 62, 65–66 Master Address File (MAF), 4, 78, 79, 142, 143 planning agencies, 58, 64, 65 special places, address review, 137 Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) Program, 4, 16, 79, 135–137, 140, 142–150, 329, 342 group quarters, 137, 152 Long form continuation forms, 130 design/analysis (1990 census), 71, 73, 74 design/analysis (2000 census), 80–81, 82, 105, 119, 130 mail response/return rates, 100, 101, 102, 106 optical data capture, 116–117 privacy/confidentiality concerns, 112 Long-form data defined, see Data-defined Long-form sample, 1–2, 9–11, 18, 19, 23, 31, 260, 269–301 additional data, uses of, 59–69, 269–270, 296–297 administrative records and, 269, 297 American Community Survey (ACS) and, 11, 94–95, 134, 300, 348, 349 blacks, quality measures, 273–275, 278, 292–293 census tracts, 34, 80, 291, 292 commuting and commuters, data on, 65, 66 consistency measures, 10, 11, 23, 119, 125, 128, 134, 272, 277–279, 288–290, 294, 295–296, 347–348 disabled persons, 63, 65, 66 educational attainment, 65, 66, 68 elderly persons, 62, 68 employment status, 11, 348, 349 Hispanics, 34, 273–275, 278, 284, 293 historical data uses, 59–60, 68

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity imputation, 10, 23, 74, 125–134, 270, 271, 274, 281, 283, 286, 287, 329, 347–349 income data, 2, 10, 60, 119, 269, 282, 284, 285, 286 language factors, uses of data, 61–62, 65, 66 local government uses, 61, 62, 65–66 metropolitan statistical areas, 64–65 missing data, 10, 27–28, 74, 125–134, 155, 276–277, 280–281, 286–288, 294–295, 297, 299, 341, 347, 348 Native Americans, 278, 279 1990 census, 74, 273, 285 nonresponse and, 260, 272–273, 275, 284, 286, 288, 294 NRC panel recommendations, 95, 296, 300–301, 347–349 private sector uses, 60, 66–67 Public Use Microdata Samples, 11, 33 redistricting, 61 sex differences, 62, 272, 273, 274, 283 small-area data, 60–61, 68, 95 state government uses, 61, 62, 65–66 Summary Files, 11, 33 tabulations of, 34–35 taxation and, 60, 284, 285, 287, 294 weighting and variance estimation, 273, 281, 291–294 white persons, data quality measures, 278, 293 M Mail response rate, 17–18 advertising and outreach, 3, 107–112 age factors, 101, 123 blacks, 102, 123 census tracts, 102, 222 defined, 100 demographic analysis, 101–103, 114, 123 enumerators vs, 122–124 evaluation of effectiveness, general, 26–27, 104, 105, 108–114 group quarters, 153 historical patterns, 89, 97, 98, 100, 102–103, 104, 107 long form, 100, 101, 102, 106 marketing studies, 108–112 Master Address File (MAF), 109 matching, 109–111 1990 census, 75–76, 80, 81, 100, 101, 105, 108 population estimates, 59 privacy concerns, 110–112 regression analysis, 102, 109–110, 112 socioeconomic status, 114 targeted second questionnaire, 4, 82, 107 2000 census, 78, 81–82, 85–86, 98, 99, 100, 101, 104–113 (passim), 279, 286 Mail return rate, 16, 25, 76–77, 80, 98, 99, 100–103, 105–106, 108, 111–112 age factors, 101, 123 census tracts, 102, 222 defined, 100 elderly persons, 102 long form, 100, 101, 102, 106 racial/ethnic groups, 102, 109, 114, 123 Mailing package design, 1990 census, 71, 73 design, 2000 census, 81, 97, 113 evaluation of effectiveness, general, 26–27 Mailings, other See also Address lists, general; Postal Service multiple mailings, 106–107, 113–114 1990 census, 73

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity 2000 census, 98, 275 2010 census, 340 Management factors, see Organization and management factors Maps and mapping, 55, 66, 75 computer applications, 66, 73, 75, 147, 342 geographic information system (GIS), 147 TIGER, 73, 75, 147, 342 Marital status, 60, 80, 284, 287, 292, 312, 313, 316 Master Address File (MAF), 98 A.C.E., 140, 141, 161, 172, 189, 235–236, 277 computer technology, general, 137–138 cost/funding, 135, 149 counties, 142, 144, 145 development of, 78–79, 86, 92, 98, 134–151 dual-systems estimation, 140, 161 duplicate addresses, 27, 104, 137–140, 141 duplicate enumeration, 4, 21, 82, 92, 104, 105, 137, 138, 141, 145, 146, 147, 161, 192, 240 erroneous addresses, 20–21, 27, 28, 137, 144, 145–146, 148 evaluation research, 12, 350–351 geocoding errors, 137, 141 gross error, 4, 141–142 group quarters, 137, 147, 152, 156, 342 local government, general, 4, 78, 79, 142, 143 Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) Program, 4, 16, 79, 135–137, 140, 142–150, 329, 342 mail response rate, 109 multiunit structures, 21, 140, 342 nonresponse follow-up, 137, 139 NRC panel recommendations, 3–4, 138, 150–151, 328, 330, 333, 335, 341–342, 350–351 NRC panel study mandate, 16 population estimates, 142, 143 privacy and confidentiality, 79, 144, 149–150 rural areas, 20–21, 78–79 state government, 4, 342 TIGER and, 147, 148, 149, 150 time requirements for development, 79 undercount, 141 urban areas, 78–79 weighting and variance estimation, 140 Master Trace Sample, 12, 114, 333, 351 Matching A.C.E., 7, 8, 13, 24, 145, 159, 172, 173, 180, 181, 182, 189, 192, 198–199, 202–204, 205, 208, 228, 246, 263, 264, 265, 279, 346 A.C.E. Revision II, 210, 212, 215, 220–221, 226–228, 230, 246 computer matching, 167, 172, 180–182, 186, 202, 213, 214, 215, 218, 262, 335 dual-systems estimation, 79, 85, 159, 160–163, 170 group quarters, 154 households, 202, 203 imputation and, 126, 131 long-form-sample data quality assurance, 260 mail response evaluation, 109–111 Matching Error Study, 203, 210 NRC panel recommendations, 263, 264, 265 optical recognition evaluation, 118 planning for 2010 census, 186 race/ethnicity, 204, 223, 224, 319, 320–321 redistricting, 46 targeted extended search (TES), 173–174, 177, 179, 187, 190, 196, 204–206, 208 urban areas, 204 Matching Error Study, 203, 210, 218, 246 Medicaid, 62 Medicare, 164

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), 64–65 Microdata, 12, 17, 33, 279, 336, 337, 352 migration flows, 69 Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS), 11, 33, 281, 296, 333, 348 uses of, 68, 69, 352 Military personnel overseas, apportionment counts, 38–39 Minor civil division (MCD), 34, 53, 55, 142, 144 Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity; specific groups Missing data, 342, 348–349 A.C.E. Revision II, 221–223 complete-count items, 276–279, 280 group quarters, 28, 155, 342, 348–349 long-form sample, 10, 27–28, 74, 125–134, 155, 276–279, 280–281, 286–288, 294–295, 297, 299, 341, 347, 348 poststratum, 195–197 Monitoring Board, see Census Monitoring Board Mosbacher, Robert, 37 Movers, 201, 208, 213, 218, 220, 221, 234, 246, 247, 262, 264, 266, 343 P-sample, 172–173, 179, 187, 189, 190–191, 194–198 (passim), 201 Multiple response modes Be Counted, 104, 105 Internet, 99, 100, 104 Multiunit structures geocoding, 252 Master Address File (MAF), 21, 140, 342 number of, 99 Multivariate analysis, 25, 199 N National Center for Health Statistics, 58 National Content Survey, 310–311, 323 National Opinion Research Center (NORC), 108–110, 111 National Origins Act, 307 National Processing Center, 72, 115 National Science Foundation, 65 Native Americans, 174, 238, 241, 308, 311, 314, 315, 320 A.C.E. Revision II, 222–223, 224, 227–229 long-form-sample quality measures, 278, 279 marketing study to assess response, 109 on reservations, 223, 224, 238 tribal governments, Delivery Sequence File (DSF), 21 tribal leaders, 99 Noncitizens, see Foreigners Noncity-style address, 73, 79, 135, 137 Nonmovers, 173, 190, 191, 195, 196, 197, 198, 201, 219, 220, 221, 224, 232, 246 Nonresponse, 59, 340 See also Mail response rate; Mail return rate long-form-sample data, 260, 272–273, 275, 284, 286, 288, 294 Nonresponse follow-up (NRFU), 3, 82 age factors, 123 black persons, 123 census tracts, 83 congressional input, 83, 88–89 costs, 3, 75, 82–84, 93, 99, 101, 133, 134, 340 demographic analysis, 114, 123 enumerators, error caused by, 21, 119, 121–122 evaluation of effectiveness, general, 27 Hispanics, 123, 284 imputation vs, 59, 133, 340 Master Address File (MAF), 137, 139 multiple mailings, 106–107, 113–114, 275 redistricting, 83–84

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity renters, 123 sampling for nonresponse follow-up (SNRFU), 84, 87, 88, 89–91, 92, 172–173 sex differences, 123 telephone, see Telephone follow-up time limits, 84 1990 census, 76 2000 census, 99, 103–104, 113–114, 120–125, 133, 340 total (100 percent) follow-up, 92, 93 workup/implementation, 1990 census, 72, 75–76 workup/implementation, 2000 census, 82–84, 87, 88, 89–91, 92, 98, 99, 106–107, 120–124, 202, 340 workup/implementation, 2010 census, 340, 341 O Office of Management and Budget (OMB) long-form-sample data uses, 64–65 race/ethnicity coverage directive, 15, 304, 308–311, 312, 322 Omissions, 6, 8, 9, 20, 23, 29, 42, 54, 137, 141, 146, 155, 158, 179, 182–183, 188, 209, 344 dual-system estimation, 42 general, 20 Operational trials, 2, 26 See also Dress rehearsals time requirements, 26 Optical recognition 1990 census, 74, 116 2000 census, 115–117, 118, 172 Organization and management factors, 325–330, 350–351 A.C.E., 326–330 (passim), 350–351 workup to 1990 census, 72 Outmover, see Movers Outreach, see Advertising and outreach Overcount, 5–6, 17, 29, 204 See also Duplicate enumeration; Undercount A.C.E., 6–7, 8–9, 158, 176, 179–180, 185, 246, 249 A.C.E. Revision II, 158, 209–217, 249–251, 258 adjustment policy, 6, 17, 18, 28, 176, 179–180 counties, 249–250 duplication, 7, 27–28, 42, 180 gross coverage error, 4, 19 net overcount, 127, 158, 176, 185, 249–251 P Panel Survey of Income Dynamics, 68–69 Parolees and probationers, 74 Partnership agreements, 107–109 Person Duplication Studies, 179, 180, 200, 208, 211, 214–217, 333, 351 See also Further Study of Person Duplication Person record, 33, 35, 135, 276 P.L. 94–171, 53, 273 P.L. 103–130, see Address List Improvement Act Planning, Research, and Evaluation Division (PRED), 326, 328 Political factors, 17, 26, 86, 88 See also Apportionment; Redistricting Census Advisory Committee, 86–87 comparison of decennial censuses, 24–25 Congress, political parties, 2, 75, 86, 88–89, 92–93, 94 stakeholders relations with Census Bureau, 11, 30, 31, 69, 71, 75, 77, 83, 86, 92, 95 Poor persons long-form-sample data, 62, 63, 65, 68, 293–294, 295, 299 Medicaid allocations, 62 Workforce Investment Act Program and Youth Activities, 63

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity Population estimates, general, 1 See also Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation; Apportionment; Overcount; Post-Enumeration Survey; Redistricting; Undercount age-related, 55, 58, 229, 239 demographic analysis, 55, 164–165, 181–183 group quarters, 156, 342–343 imputation, 132, 167–168, 270–276 Master Address File (MAF), 142, 143 NRC panel general evaluation, 28–29, 31 overseas residents, apportionment counts, 41 postcensal estimates, 6, 8, 28, 169, 182, 183–184, 185, 254–258 uses of, 55–59 Population groups, general, 30, 33 See also Demographic data and analysis; Poststratification and poststrata; Race/ethnicity A.C.E., 9, 28, 159, 177–178, 179, 183–184 dual-systems estimation, 159 long-form additional data uses, 60 multivariate analysis, 25 questionnaire/mailing package design, 105–106 summary and microdata, 33 Postal Service (USPS) census tracts, use of, 67 Delivery Sequence File (DSF), 3–4, 21, 78, 79, 83, 135 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), 5, 8, 27, 75, 86, 91, 158, 159, 166–169 See also P-sample A.C.E. and, 7, 157, 162, 163, 171–174, 176, 178, 187–205 (passim), 208, 209, 212, 227–229, 245–247, 252–253, 260, 343, 345 A.C.E. Revision II and, 226–231, 246, 247 block clusters, 141, 162, 166–167 court cases, 166, 168–170 gross error, 188, 203, 243–244, 252–253 group quarters, 151, 154, 155, 156, 171, 343 PES-A, 167 PES-B, 167, 172–173, 191, 246, 264 PES-C, 173, 191, 197, 246, 264 undercount, 75, 231, 249, 260–261, 345 Poststratification and poststrata, A.C.E./A.C.E. Revision II, 7, 9, 169, 174, 181, 189, 191, 206–208 (passim), 236, 247–248, 251, 258–259, 346 See also E-sample definition (original 2000 A.C.E.), see Table E.3 in text dual system estimation, 193, 205 missing characteristics, 195–197 NRC panel recommendations, 264, 266 P-sample, 159, 161, 162, 167–168, 173, 176, 177, 187, 197, 204, 236, 251 Primary selection algorithm (PSA), 240 Privacy and confidentiality, 12, 336, 352 advertising to allay fears, 110–112 contractors, use of, 12–13 evaluation of effectiveness, general, 26–27, 110–112 Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) Program, 144 Master Address File (MAF), 79, 144, 149–150 race/ethnicity, 311 Survey of Privacy Attitudes, 110–111 Private sector See also Contracting and contractors Address Control File, 72–73 Advisory Committee of Professional Associations, 87 Census Advisory Committee, 86–87

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity census data uses, 58–59 long-form additional data uses, 60, 66–67 partnership agreements, 107 questionnaire design, 106 Process evaluations, 22–24, 30 after-the-fact, 22–23 Program for Address List Supplementation (PALS), 79 Proxies enumerations, 23, 251, 264 interviews, 124, 195, 196 responses, 55, 84, 222, 223, 258, 291, 333 P-sample, 85, 140, 159–162, 166, 167, 168, 169, 172, 173, 176, 179, 187, 190–212 (passim), 218–226, 233, 245, 246–247, 253, 256, 257–258, 262, 263, 265, 319, 320, 333, 343, 346, 352 long-form-sample data, 270, 277–279, 281, 282, 283 movers, 172–173, 179, 187, 189, 190–191, 194–198 (passim), 201 Public education See also Advertising and outreach census benefits, 15–16, 107, 109 school district allocations, 62–63 single-language minorities, 61–62 special education grants to states, 63 Public opinion, 15–16, 75, 107, 110–112 See also Advertising and outreach; Political factors Survey of Privacy Attitudes, 110–111, 112 Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS), 11, 33, 35, 67–68, 296, 333, 348 Q Questionnaires See also Optical recognition address labeling (2000 census), 135 design, group quarters, 151, 154, 155, 156, 343 design, household size, 105, 127–128, 236 design (1990 census), 71, 73, 76, 312 design (2000 census), 78, 80–82, 85–86, 97, 105–107, 112, 113–114, 270, 312–316, 340 design (2010 census), 119–120, 265, 340 evaluation of effectiveness, general, 26–27, 85–86 race/ethnicity items, 312–313, 314–316, 349–350 response errors, 21, 118–119, 121–122 Spanish, 117, 118 targeted second questionnaire, 4, 82, 107 telephone assistance, 109, 115, 125–126, 134, 172 R Race and Ethnicity Target Test (RAETT), 310, 311, 313, 323 Race/ethnicity, 170–171, 174, 303–324, 344–345 See also Foreigners; Immigrants and immigration; specific groups advisory committees for minority groups, 86–87 complete-count data, 34, 273–275 consistency of data, 272, 277–279, 317–321, 324, 349 demographic analysis, general, 8, 75, 85, 164 discrimination based on, 52, 61, 64, 303 duplication/imputation, 241–243 household surveys, 58 imputation, 132, 241–243, 272, 273–275, 277–280, 283, 316–317, 318 long-form-sample data uses, 66 mail return rates, 102, 109, 114, 123 marketing study to assess response, 109

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity matching, 204, 223, 224, 319, 320–321 multiple races reported, 24, 35, 312–313, 317–318, 320, 349 NRC panel mandate, 16, 18 NRC panel recommendations, 321–324, 349–350 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) directive, 15, 304, 308–311, 312, 322 population estimates, 55, 58, 59, 227–232 undercounts, 27, 75, 81, 84, 123 voting rights, redistricting, 47–54 Real-time process evaluation, 22–23 Reapportionment, see Apportionment Redistricting, 1, 15, 17, 28, 33, 36–55 A.C.E., 92, 174–175, 177, 178–179 blacks, 43, 47, 52, 54 census tracts, 53 complete count data items, 34 coverage error, 37 long-form additional data uses, 61 nonresponse follow-up, 83–84 population size/districts by state, table, 56–57 racial/ethnic discrimination, 52, 303 small areas, 43–46 (passim) 2000 census, 87, 103, 267 Voting Rights Act, 43, 47, 49–53, 61–62, 303 Regression analysis, 332 mail response rate, 102, 109–110, 112 marketing study to assess response, 109–110, 111, 112 Renters, 2, 197, 204, 222 long-form-sample data, imputation, 272, 273, 277–279, 283 nonresponse follow-up, 123 undercounts, 27, 123, 238–239 Reservations, Native American, 223, 224, 238 tribal leaders, 99 Response rate, see Mail response rate; Nonresponse follow-up Return rate, see Mail return rate Revision II, see A.C.E. Revision II Reynolds v. Sims, 45 Rochester Institute of Technology Research Corporation, 117 Rural areas Address Control File (ACF), 73 congressional apportionment, 37 Master Address File (MAF), 20–21, 78–79 S Sample Census Edited File, 291 Sample data-defined, see Data-defined Sensitivity analysis, 194, 199 Service-based enumeration (SBE), 151 Sex-related characterization, 317 A.C.E., 8, 183, 229, 255, 283 A.C.E. Revision II, 224, 225–226, 228, 246, 248, 255 complete-count data, 9–10, 34 demographic analysis, 8, 55, 75, 85, 164, 183, 224, 225–226, 246 duplicate enumeration, 241–243 household surveys, 58 long-form-sample data, imputation, 272, 273, 274, 283 long-form-sample data uses, 65 nonresponse follow-up, 123 population estimates, 55, 58, 170–171, 183, 225–226, 239 Short form 1960 census, 60 1990 census, 73 2000 census, 80, 82, 100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 118, 269, 274–275 2010 census, 3, 340 Short-form data-defined, see Data-defined Small areas See also Counties A.C.E., 6, 259–260 American Community Survey (ACS), 3, 95, 340 demographic data uses, 55, 59

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity group quarters, geocoding, 153 long-form additional data, 60–61, 68, 95 migration flows, 59, 69 postcensal estimates, 254 public use microdata sample, 33 race/ethnicity, 317 redistricting, 43–46 (passim) Socioeconomic data and analysis, 1–2, 269 See also Income data; Poor persons mail response rate, 114 Medicaid reimbursement, 62 small areas, 68–69 state uses, 65 Special places, 33, 152 See also Group quarters address lists, 135, 137 Standards process evaluation, 23 quality indicators, 23–24 race/ethnicity coverage, OMB directive, 15, 304, 308–311, 312, 322 redistricting, 46 State government census coverage, cooperation of, 99, 107, 342 census data, use of, 4, 15–16, 28, 55, 58 fund allocation, 28, 58, 61, 62, 63, 65 long-form additional data uses, 61, 62, 65–66 Master Address File (MAF), 4, 342 planning, 65, 66 Students, 21 Subnational areas, 6, 19, 85, 248–252 See also Counties; Local area information; Rural areas; Urban areas A.C.E., 6–7, 30, 249, 259 A.C.E. Revision II, 223, 243–244, 245, 249, 250–251 National Center for Health Statistics, 58 Post-Enumeration Survey, 75, 243, 249 race/ethnicity, 313, 320, 321 Summary Files, 11, 34–35, 102, 217, 239, 274, 281, 296, 300, 332, 348, 349 Supplement on Race and Ethnicity to the Current Population Survey, 310, 311, 323 Supreme Court, 71 address lists, 149 (n.19) census (2000), 71 congressional apportionment, 28, 37, 42–43, 90–92, 170 illegal immigrants, apportionment counts, 37–38 overseas residents, apportionment counts, 38–41 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), 170 redistricting, 43, 44–45, 52 sampling-based methods prohibited, 28, 90–91 uncounted people, apportionment imputations, 42–43 Survey of Income and Population, 58 Survey of Privacy Attitudes, 110–111, 112 Synthetic errors, 164, 177, 186, 248, 251, 264 T Targeted extended search (TES), 173–174, 177, 179, 187, 190, 196, 204–206, 208 Targeted second questionnaires, 4, 82, 107 Taxes administrative records, 78 congressional apportionment and, 305 long-form-sample data, 60, 284, 285, 287, 294 Telephone follow-up interactive voice response (IVR), 115 1990 census, 74, 125–126

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity questionnaire assistance, 109, 115, 125–126, 134, 172 2000 census, 80, 104–105, 109, 125–126, 132, 134, 172, 275 Television advertising, 107, 109 Time factors See also Historical perspectives A.C.E., 30, 178, 186, 187, 188, 266 A.C.E. Revision II, 266–267 American Community Survey, 339–340 census block-level data analysis, 9 census design deadline, 3–4, 26 census implementation, general, 97, 339–340 congressional apportionment deadlines, 36, 103, 170 congressional redistricting deadlines, 9, 103, 178, 267 controlled timing and execution, 103–104 count changes, 35 data capture, 115–117 data processing, 126, 131 enumerators, 120–123 evaluation research, 11–12 Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) Program, 4, 16, 79, 135 Master Address File development, 79 nonresponse follow-up, 1990 census, 76 nonresponse follow-up, 2000 census, 99, 103–104, 113–114, 120–125, 133, 340 NRC general evaluation of 2000 census, 27, 103–104, 105 NRC panel methodology, 17–18 NRC panel recommendations, 95, 266–267, 339–340 operational trials, 2, 26 real-time process evaluation, 22, 337 timeliness, general, 1990 census, 83, 86 2000 census, 2, 3, 10, 11, 17–18, 27, 31, 86, 97–98, 105, 114, 115–120, 266–267, 339, 340 2010 census, 4, 12, 84, 266–267, 339–340 Titan Corporation, 119 Title 13, see Census Act Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System (TIGER), 73, 75, 147–150 (passim), 342 Tracts, see Census tracts Type of enumeration area definition, see Box C.2 in text U Undercount, 5–6, 17, 29, 42–43, 78, 84 See also Overcount A.C.E., 6–7, 8–9, 29, 158, 162, 176, 178–179, 180–182, 185, 187, 188, 189, 206, 208, 230–231, 237, 246, 249, 252, 255–257, 260–261, 343, 345 A.C.E. Revision II, 158, 185, 209, 217–226, 230–231, 247–248, 249–251, 253–256, 258 adjustment policy, 6, 17, 18, 28 children, 27, 75, 85, 123, 225–226, 253–255 (passim) dual-systems estimation, 162 gross coverage error, 4, 19, 29, 178–179 net undercount, 5, 7, 8, 19, 20, 27, 29, 37, 42, 54, 58, 74, 77, 84, 127, 157, 158, 166, 168, 176, 179, 180–182, 185, 187, 188, 189, 230–231, 249–250, 252, 258, 343, 344, 345 1990 census, 5–6, 74, 75, 77, 157 political stakeholders, 29 population groups, 27, 123 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), 75, 231, 249, 260–261, 345

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity racial/ethnic groups, 3–4, 21, 78, 79, 83, 135 redistricting, 45 Unduplication, 7, 104, 105, 141, 145, 146, 147, 154, 156, 176, 192, 235–236 Update/leave areas, 73, 100, 137, 329, 331 Urban areas Address Control File, 72–73 block canvass, 135 congressional apportionment, 37 long-form-sample data uses, 64–65, 68 matching, 204 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), 64–65 net overcount/undercount, 250 poverty, 68–69 redistricting, general, 46, 52, 55 Usual residence, 131, 154, 200, 243, 263, 345 Utah v. Evans, 40 V Variance estimation, see Weighting and variance estimation Vital statistics birth records, 8, 55, 58–60 (passim), 164, 165, 169, 180, 181, 183, 184, 196, 214, 225, 246, 254, 260 children, biennial population estimates, 55 death records, 8, 55, 58, 59, 164, 169 demographic analysis and, 164, 181, 184 National Center for Health Statistics, 58 population estimates and, 55, 58, 59 postcensal estimates and, 6, 8, 28, 169, 182, 183–184, 185, 254–258 Voting Rights Act, 43, 47, 49–53, 61–62, 303 W Weighting and variance estimation A.C.E., 171, 187, 194–195, 204–205 A.C.E. Revision II, 221–222 dual-systems estimation, 160, 205 funding, population estimates for, 58 long form (1990 census), 74 long-form-sample data (2000 census), 273, 281, 291–294 Master Address File (MAF), 140 undercounts, 58 White persons, 174, 227–231, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 320 advertising campaign, awareness of, 110 duplicate enumeration, 239, 241 imputation, 127, 198–199, 293 long-form-sample data, quality measures, 278, 293 mail return rates, 102 undercount, 157, 247 Whole-household/whole-person imputation, 127–131, 177–178, 186, 192, 230, 235–240, 273, 275–276, 281, 291–292, 332, 341 Workforce Investment Act Adult Program and Youth Activities, 63