(see Section 3-C.5). After intense debate, Congress approved the design and provided the full amount of funding—over $4.5 billion—requested by the Census Bureau for fiscal year 2000. Total appropriations for fiscal years 1991–2003 provided a budget of over $7 billion for the 2000 census.

3–C.5 The 2000 Census Design

The final design for 2000 dropped the use of SNRFU and ICM and adopted 100 percent follow-up of nonresponding households. It also expanded the number of field offices to manage the enumeration (from the originally proposed number of 476 to 520 offices, excluding Puerto Rico) and expanded the advertising program. For these reasons, the fiscal year 2000 budget request for census operations requested an increase of 61 percent over the amount originally requested (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1999a:4).

The final design, however, retained other features originally planned for 2000, including the emphasis on computer imputation to supply missing data for households and persons in place of repeated follow-up attempts and the use of multiple sources to develop the MAF. The MAF development procedures were modified in the late 1990s to respond to problems in the original plans, and a special operation to reduce duplicate enumerations resulting from duplicate MAF addresses was added to the census in summer 2000.

The final 2000 design included the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation Program, which fielded an independent household survey smaller than that planned for ICM (300,000 compared with 700,000 households), but larger than the 1990 PES (165,000 households). The plan was to use the A.C.E. results, if warranted, to adjust the census counts for redistricting and all other purposes except reapportionment of the Congress. The first adjusted results under this scheme would be released by April 1, 2001. As described in Chapter 5, this plan was ultimately not carried out.


The lack of agreement among key stakeholders about an appropriate design adversely affected the planning and decision-making process for the 2000 census and added to its costs. The level of

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