THE 2000 CENSUS

Counting Under Adversity

Panel to Review the 2000 Census

Constance F. Citro, Daniel L. Cork, and Janet L. Norwood, Editors

Committee on National Statistics

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity THE 2000 CENSUS Counting Under Adversity Panel to Review the 2000 Census Constance F. Citro, Daniel L. Cork, and Janet L. Norwood, Editors Committee on National Statistics Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The project that is the subject of this report was supported by contract no. 50-YABC-8-66010 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Census Bureau. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09141-1 (book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-52998-0 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number: 2004102206 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20001; (202) 334-3096; Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Research Council (2004). The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity. Panel to Review the 2000 Census. Constance F. Citro, Daniel L. Cork, and Janet L. Norwood, eds. Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity PANEL TO REVIEW THE 2000 CENSUS JANET L. NORWOOD (Chair), Chevy Chase, Maryland ROBERT M. BELL, AT&T Labs–Research, Florham Park, New Jersey NORMAN M. BRADBURN, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia LAWRENCE D. BROWN, Department of Statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania WILLIAM F. EDDY, Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University ROBERT M. HAUSER, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin–Madison RODERICK J.A. LITTLE,* School of Public Health, University of Michigan INGRAM OLKIN, Department of Statistics and School of Education, Stanford University D. BRUCE PETRIE, Canadian Institute for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Study Director MICHAEL L. COHEN, Senior Program Officer DANIEL L. CORK, Program Officer AGNES GASKIN, Senior Project Assistant MARISA GERSTEIN, Research Assistant SETH HAUSER, Research Associate MICHELE VER PLOEG, Program Officer MEYER ZITTER, Consultant *   Served until March 2000.

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS 2004 JOHN E. ROLPH (Chair), Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California JOSEPH G. ALTONJI, Department of Economics, Yale University ROBERT M. BELL, AT&T Labs–Research, Florham Park, New Jersey LAWRENCE D. BROWN, Department of Statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania ROBERT M. GROVES, Survey Research Center, University of Michigan, and Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland JOHN C. HALTIWANGER, Department of Economics, University of Maryland PAUL W. HOLLAND, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey JOEL L. HOROWITZ, Department of Economics, Northwestern University WILLIAM KALSBEEK, Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill ARLEEN LEIBOWITZ, School of Public Policy and Social Research, University of California, Los Angeles VIJAYAN NAIR, Department of Statistics and Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan DARYL PREGIBON, Google, New York City KENNETH PREWITT, Department of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University NORA CATE SCHAEFFER, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison JAMES F. HINCHMAN, Acting Director CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Acting Chief of Staff

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity Acknowledgments The Panel to Review the 2000 Census wishes to thank the many people who have contributed to the panel’s work and helped make possible the preparation of this final report. We thank, first, staff of the U.S. Census Bureau who prepared a large number of evaluation reports about the census, the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) Program, and demographic analysis, made informative presentations at panel meetings and workshops, and answered many specific questions about census procedures and evaluations. We thank particularly William Bell, Cynthia Clark, Donald Dalzell, Robert Fay, Philip Gbur, Howard Hogan, Ruth Ann Killion, Louis Kincannon, Joseph Knott, Donna Kostanich, John Long, Susan Love, Mary Mulry, J. Gregory Robinson, and Preston J. Waite. Former deputy director and acting director William Barron, former director Kenneth Prewitt, and former associate director for decennial census John Thompson also made valuable contributions to the panel’s meetings and workshops. Rajendra Singh has been very helpful as the Census Bureau’s project officer throughout the study. We further thank the Census Bureau for arranging for panel members and staff to have access to key data files for analysis, beginning in February 2001. Such access was provided not only to the panel but also to congressional oversight groups, under procedures to safeguard confidentiality. The ability to analyze key data sets provided knowledge of census and A.C.E. procedures and evaluations that would not otherwise have been possible for the panel to obtain.

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity We thank others in the professional community who participated in panel workshops: Barbara Bailar, National Opinion Research Center (retired); Stephen Fienberg, Carnegie Mellon University; David Freedman, University of California, Berkeley; Charles Jones, U.S. Census Monitoring Board, Congressional Members (retired); Graham Kalton, Westat; Jeffrey Passel, Urban Institute; Allen Schirm, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.; Joseph Sedransk, Case Western Reserve University; Bruce Spencer, Northwestern University; Philip Stark, University of California, Berkeley; Michael Stoto, RAND; Joseph Waksberg, Westat; Martin Wells, Cornell University; Kirk Wolter, National Opinion Research Center (retired); Donald Ylvisaker, University of California, Los Angeles; and Alan Zaslavsky, Harvard Medical School. We also thank David Harris, University of Michigan, and Joseph Salvo, New York City Department of City Planning, for major contributions to the panel’s work. David prepared an insightful paper on the measurement and definition of race and ethnicity in federal statistics and the census. Joe ably chaired a working group on the Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) Program commissioned by the panel to evaluate LUCA from the local government perspective. Throughout its work, the panel benefited from discussions with congressional staff, particularly during the period when oversight authority for the census was vested by the U.S. House of Representatives in a Subcommittee on the Census of the Committee on Government Reform. In particular, we thank David McMillen and Michael Miguel for their insights. We have also benefited from interactions with staff of the U.S. General Accounting Office. The panel is especially indebted to Constance Citro who, as senior study director, organized the work of the panel and guided its evaluation of the 2000 census. Her wide experience in census issues, her competence in statistical methods, and the clarity of her reasoning have been critical to the successful completion of our interim report and now our final report. We have benefited enormously from her talent and knowledge and feel extremely fortunate to have had her work with us. The panel was assisted by a very able staff. Daniel Cork played a major role for the panel in conducting analyses of data files from the A.C.E., analyzing 1990 and 2000 census data on mail return rates,

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity drafting text for the report, developing informative graphs of key results, and preparing the report for release. His hard work and contributions, achieved under tight time pressures, were extraordinary. Andrew White, former director of the Committee on National Statistics, served as study director for the panel from November 1998 through March 2000. He was assisted by Michael Cohen, who organized three panel workshops and contributed to the panel’s work throughout, particularly to the text on issues of evaluation and imputation methods. Meyer Zitter contributed to the panel’s assessments of demographic analysis and the procedures for developing the Master Address File. He also specified and analyzed tables of comparable 1990 and 2000 census item imputation rates for the long-form sample. Michele Ver Ploeg and Marisa Gerstein assisted in data analysis, as did Zhanyun Zhao, University of Pennsylvania. Seth Hauser, now with the U.S. State Department, assisted in the analysis of item imputation rates and drafted text on the measurement of race and ethnicity. Heather Koball, now with the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University, prepared background material for the panel on race and ethnicity and organized and assessed trips for the panel and staff to observe census and A.C.E. operations in January–June 2000. Carrie Muntean, now with the U.S. Foreign Service, prepared background material for the panel on the development of the 1990 and 2000 census address lists and provided invaluable support to the panel’s commissioned working group on the LUCA Program. Joshua Dick, Jamie Casey, and Agnes Gaskin provided valuable project assistance to the panel, particularly in making arrangements for the panel’s workshops. Christine McShane, senior editor of the reports office of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, made important contributions to the report through her fine technical editing. To all we are grateful. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge.

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Vincent P. Barabba, Chairman, Market Insight Corporation and the Internet Home Alliance, Palo Alto, CA; Joseph B. Kadane, Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University; Kenneth Prewitt, Department of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University; Bruce D. Spencer, Department of Statistics, Northwestern University; Michael A. Stoto, Center for Domestic and International Health Security, RAND, Arlington, VA; James Trussell, Office of Population Research, Princeton University; Donald Ylvisaker, Department of Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles; and Alan M. Zaslavsky, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by John C. Bailar III, Professor Emeritus, Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring panel and the institution. Janet L. Norwood, Chair Panel to Review the 2000 Census

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction and Overview   15     1–A  The Panel and Its Charge   16     1–B  Overview of This Report   17     1–C  Evaluating a Census   18     1–C.1  Errors in the Census   19     1–C.2  Methods of Evaluation   22     1–D  Summary of Findings: Overall Assessment   25     1–D.1  Achievements   26     1–D.2  Problems   27     1–D.3  Adjustment Decisions   28     1–D.4  Evaluation   30     1–D.5  Summary Assessment   31 2   Census Goals and Uses   33     2–A  Congressional Apportionment   36     2–A.1  Treatment of Noncitizens   37     2–A.2  Treatment of Americans Overseas   38     2–A.3  Treatment of Uncounted People   42     2–B  Legislative Redistricting   43     2–B.1  History of Redistricting Standards   44     2–B.2  Voting Rights Act of 1965 and Amendments   47     2–B.3  Implications of Redistricting for Census Data Requirements   53

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity 8   Race and Ethnicity Measurement   303     8–A  Historical Overview   304     8–B  Standardizing Federal Collection: The OMB Guidelines   308     8–C  Race and Ethnicity Data in 1990 and 2000   312     8–C.1  Questions and Results   312     8–C.2  Quality of Race and Ethnicity Data in the 2000 Census   313     8–D  Future Requirements   322 9   Management and Research   325     9–A  Organization and Management Structure   325     9–A.1  2000 Census Organization   325     9–A.2  Assessment   327     9–B  Evaluation Program   330     9–B.1  Completing 2000 Census Evaluations   330     9–B.2  Strengthening the Evaluation Component for 2010   334 10   Detailed Findings and Recommendations   339     Appendixes   353     A  Panel Activities and Prior Reports   355     A.1  List of Panel Meetings, Workshops, and Trips by Panel Members   355     A.2  Publications   356     A.2.a  The 2000 Census: Interim Assessment   356     A.2.b  LUCA Working Group Report   357     A.2.c  Workshop Proceedings   359     A.3  Commissioned Paper   359     A.4  Letter Reports   360     A.4.a  May 1999 Letter Report   360     A.4.b  November 2000 Letter Report   369     A.4.c  November 2001 Letter Report   373     B  Questionnaire Items on the 2000 and 1990 Censuses and Census 2000 Supplementary Survey   375

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity     C  Census Operations   379     C.1  Master Address File   380     C.1.a  Initial Development   380     C.1.b  Local Review   381     C.1.c  Further Development of MAF   384     C.1.d  Internal Checks for Duplicates   384     C.1.e  Comparison: Address List Development in 1990   386     C.2  Questionnaire Delivery and Mail Return   387     C.2.a  Redesign of Mailings and Materials to Boost Response   390     C.2.b  Multiple Response Modes   391     C.2.c  Comparison: 1990 Questionnaire Delivery and Return   392     C.3  Field Follow-Up   392     C.3.a  Nonresponse Follow-Up   393     C.3.b  Coverage Improvement Follow-Up   395     C.3.c  Comparison: 1990 Field Follow-Up and Coverage Improvement   397     C.3.d  Summary: 1990 and 2000   400     C.4  Outreach Efforts   401     C.5  Data Processing   402     C.5.a  Data Capture   403     C.5.b  Coverage Edit and Telephone Follow-Up   403     C.5.c  Unduplication of Households and People   404     C.5.d  Editing and Imputation   405     C.5.e  Other Data Processing   406     C.5.f  Comparison: 1990 Data Processing   406     D  Completeness of Census Returns   409     D.1  Coverage Completeness: 1990   409     D.2  Coverage Completeness: 2000   410     D.2.a  Within-Household Omissions and Erroneous Enumerations by Type of Return   410     D.2.b  Omissions and Erroneous Enumerations by Mail Return Rate Deciles   411     D.2.c  Erroneous Enumerations by Domain and Tenure   414

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity     E  A.C.E. Operations   417     E.1  Sampling, Address Listing, and Housing Unit Match   417     E.1.a  First-Stage Sampling and Address Listing of Block Clusters   418     E.1.b  Sample Reduction for Medium and Large Block Clusters   419     E.1.c  Sample Reduction for Small Block Clusters   419     E.1.d  Initial Housing Unit Match   419     E.1.e  Last Step in Sampling: Reduce Housing Units in Large Block Clusters   419     E.2  P-Sample Interviewing   420     E.3  Initial Matching and Targeted Extended Search   422     E.3.a  E-Sample and P-Sample Matching Within Block Cluster   423     E.3.b  Targeted Extended Search   424     E.4  Field Follow-Up and Final Matching   425     E.5  Weighting and Imputation   426     E.6  Poststrata Estimation   428     F  Methods for Treating Missing Data   433     F.1  Overview   433     F.1.a  Mechanisms for Nonresponse   436     F.1.b  Implementation Considerations   438     F.2  Outline of the Current Methodology   440     F.3  Problems with the Current Methodology   442     F.4  New Approaches to Imputation and Their Advantages   444     F.5  New Approaches to Variance Estimation and Their Advantages   449     F.6  Suggestions for Work for the American Community Survey and the 2010 Census   452     G  2000 Census Basic (Complete-Count) Data Processing   455     G.1  Data Capture and Coverage Edit   456     G.2  Item Imputation and Editing   457     G.2.a  Imputation Methodology   457     G.2.b  Example of Edit and Imputation Specifications: Housing Tenure   459     G.3  Person Imputation   462

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity     G.4  Household Imputation   463     H  2000 Census Long-Form-Sample Data Processing   469     H.1  Data Capture   470     H.2  Weighting   470     H.2.a  Initial Weighting Areas   470     H.2.b  Data Augmentation   471     H.2.c  Final Weighting Areas   472     H.2.d  Construction of Weights   472     H.3  Item Imputation   476     H.3.a  Example of Edit and Imputation Specifications: Education Variables   477     H.3.b  Analysis   478     I  Census 2000 Evaluations and Experiments   495     I.1  Census 2000 Evaluations   495     I.2  Census 2000 Evaluation Topic Reports   505     I.3  Census 2000 Experiments   506     Glossary and Abbreviations   511     Bibliography   533     Biographical Sketches of Panel Members and Staff   567     Index to Chapters 1–10   573

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity List of Figures 8.1   Race and Hispanic Origin Questions, 1990 Census   314 8.2   Race and Hispanic Origin Questions, 2000 Census   315 8.3   Imputation Rates for Hispanic Origin by Population (County Level)   318 8.4   Imputation Rates for Race by Population (County Level)   319 8.5   Imputation Rates for Hispanic Origin in Census Tracts of Selected Counties   320 8.6   Imputation Rates for Race in Census Tracts of Selected Counties   321 H.1   Imputation/Assignment Rates for Housing Items, 2000 and 1990 Census, Persons Receiving the Long Form (weighted)   494

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity List of Tables 2.1   Number and Approximate Average Population Size of State Senate and House Districts, by State, 2000   56 3.1   Decennial Census Costs, Total and Per Housing Unit, 1970–2000 (in constant fiscal year 2000 dollars)   94 4.1   People Requiring Imputation of All Basic Characteristics by Type of Imputation, 2000, 1990, and 1980 Censuses   129 4.2   Original and Actual Timelines for the Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) Program   136 4.3   Additions to and Deletions from the 2000 MAF from Major Census Operations in 2000   139 4.4   Participation of Local Governments in the 2000 Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) Program   143 5.1   Alternative Estimates of the Population and the Percentage Net Undercount, April 2000 (Original March 2001 A.C.E., Base DA, Alternate DA)   177 5.2   Alternative Survey-Based Estimates of Percentage Net Undercount of the Population, April 2000 (Original A.C.E. and Preliminary Revised A.C.E.) and April 1990 (Revised PES) (standard error percents in parentheses)   182 5.3   Alternative Demographic Analysis Estimates of Percentage Net Undercount of the Population, April 2000 (Base, Alternate, and Revised DA) and April 1990 (Base and Revised DA)   183 6.1   Missing Data Rates for Characteristics, 2000 A.C.E. and 1990 PES P-Sample and E-Sample (weighted)   196

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity 6.2   Percentage of 2000 A.C.E. P-Sample People with Imputed Characteristics, by Proxy Interview and Mover Status (weighted)   196 6.3   Data Sources and Evaluations Used in A.C.E. Revision II   210 6.4   Sex Ratios (Men per 100 Women) from the Census, Demographic Analysis (DA), Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) Revision II, and Post-Enumeration Survey (PES), 1990 and 2000   225 6.5   Correct Enumeration Rates Estimated from the E-Sample (percents), 2000 A.C.E. and 1990 PES, by Race/Ethnicity Domain and Housing Tenure (weighted)   227 6.6   Match Rates and Census Inclusion Rates Estimated from the P-Sample (percents), 2000 A.C.E. and 1990 PES, by Race/Ethnicity Domain and Housing Tenure (weighted)   228 6.7   Estimated Net Undercount Rates for Major Groups (percents), Original 2000 A.C.E. (March 2001), Revision II A.C.E. (March 2003), and 1990 PES (standard error percents in parentheses)   229 6.8   Components of Change from the Original A.C.E. Net Undercount Rate to the Revision II Net Undercount Rate for Selected Race/Ethnicity Domains   233 6.9   Percentage Distribution of People Requiring Imputation and Reinstated Records in the 2000 Census, and Percentage Distribution of Total People with Insufficient Information in 1990, by Race/Ethnicity Domain and Housing Tenure and by Age/Sex Categories   238 6.10   Percent Duplicate Enumerations in 2000 Census by Type for Race/Ethnicity Domains and Age/Sex Groups from the Further Study of Person Duplication   242 6.11   Estimated Net Undercount Rates (percents), Original 2000 A.C.E. (March 2001), Revised Demographic Analysis (October 2001), and A.C.E. Revision II (March 2003) by Race, Sex, and Age   255 7.1   Basic Item Imputation Rates, 2000 and 1990 Complete-Count Census, by Type of Form and Race/Ethnicity, Household Population   274 7.2   Percentage of Household Members Reporting Basic Items, 2000 Census, 2000 A.C.E. E-Sample and Independent P-Sample (weighted)   278 7.3   Basic Item Imputation Rates, 2000 and 1990 Census Long-Form Sample, Census 2000 Supplementary Survey, and 2000 P-Sample, by Type of Rate and Form, Household Population (weighted)   283

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity 7.4   Imputation/Assignment Rates for Selected Long-Form Items, 2000 and 1990 Census Long-Form Samples, by Type of Response, Household Population (weighted)   285 7.5   Imputation Rates for Selected Long-Form Items, 2000 Long-Form Sample and Census 2000 Supplemental Survey, by Type of Response, Household Population (weighted)   287 7.6   Index of Inconsistency for Selected Long-Form-Sample Items, 2000 and 1990 Content Reinterview Surveys (weighted)   290 7.7   Whole-Household Nonresponse in the 2000 and 1990 Census Long-Form Samples   292 7.8   Whole-Person Nonresponse in the 2000 Long-Form Sample, by Race of Reference Person   293 7.9   Imputation/Assignment Rates for Selected Person Items, 2000 and 1990 Census Long-Form Samples, by Type of Residence, Group Quarters Population (weighted)   298 8.1   Census Race Categories, 1850–2000   306 A.1   Meetings of the Panel to Review the 2000 Census   356 A.2   Site Visits to Regional and Local Census Offices, 2000   357 A.3   Additional Site Visits to Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation Offices, 2000   358 D.1   Composition of 2000 Census Households, as Measured in the Original A.C.E. E-Sample, by Enumeration Status, Mail and Enumerator Returns, and Housing Tenure (weighted)   412 D.2   Rates of P-Sample Omissions, E-Sample Erroneous Enumerations, and P-Sample and E-Sample Unresolved Cases in the Original 2000 A.C.E., by Mail Return Rate Decile of Census Tract (weighted)   413 D.3   Rates of E-Sample Erroneous Enumerations and Unresolved Cases, in Mailout/Mailback and Update/Leave Types of Enumeration Area (TEA), by Mail or Enumerator Return, Race/Ethnicity Domain, and Housing Tenure, Original 2000 A.C.E. (weighted)   416 E.1   Distribution of the 2000 A.C.E. P-Sample Block Clusters, Households, and People, by Sampling Stratum (unweighted)   421 E.2   Distribution of Initial, Intermediate, and Final Weights, 2000 A.C.E. P-Sample and E-Sample   427 E.3   Poststrata in the Original 2000 A.C.E., 64 Major Groups   430 G.1   Percent Whole-Person Imputations (Type 1) by Age and Domain/Tenure Category, Household Members, 2000 (Percent)   464

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity G.2   Distribution of People Requiring Whole-Household Imputation by Type of Imputation, by Race/Ethnicity Domain and Housing Tenure, 2000 Census   467 H.1   Imputation/Assignment Rates for Selected Population and Housing Items, 2000 and 1990 Census Long-Form Sample, Household Members, by Type of Response: Household Respondent (Self) vs. Enumerator-Filled (Enum) (weighted)   480 H.2   Imputation Rates for Selected Population and Housing Items, 2000 Census Long-Form Sample, Household Members, by Race and Hispanic Origin of Household Reference Person (weighted)   481 H.3   Imputation Rates for Selected Population and Housing Items, 2000 Census Long-Form Sample, Household Members, 10% Worst Census Tracts, by Race and Hispanic Origin of Reference Person (weighted)   482 H.4   Imputation Rates for Selected Population and Housing Items, 2000 Census Long-Form Sample, Household Members, by Geographic Aggregations (weighted)   483 H.5   Imputation Rates for Selected Population and Housing Items, 2000 Census Long-Form Sample, Household Members, Worst 10% Census Tracts, by Geographic Aggregations (weighted)   484 H.6   Imputation Rates for Population Items, 2000 and 1990 Census Long-Form Sample, Household Members (weighted)   485 H.7   Imputation Rates for Housing Items, 2000 and 1990 Census Long-Form Sample, Household Members (weighted)   486 H.8   Imputation/Assignment Rates (percents) for Selected Population Items for Group Quarters Residents, 2000 and 1990 Long-Form Samples, by Type of Group Quarters (weighted)   487

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity List of Boxes 2.1   Selected 2000 Census Data Products   34 2.2   Utah v. Evans: Legal Challenges to 2000 Census   40 2.3   Congressional Redistricting Cases on Population Equality, 1990s   48 2.4   Congressional Redistricting Cases on Population Equality, 2000s   49 2.5   State Legislative Redistricting Cases on Population Equality, 1990s   50 2.6   State Legislative Redistricting Cases on Population Equality, 2000s   51 2.7   Voting Rights Act Redistricting Cases, 2000s   54 3.1   Department of Commerce v. U.S. House of Representatives: Sampling in the 2000 Census   90 4.1   Mail Response and Return Rates   100 4.2   Imputation Types for Basic (Complete-Count) Characteristics   128 4.3   Defining Participation in the Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) Program   144 6.1   Alternative Treatment of Duplicate Census Enumerations, Two Examples   201 C.1   Basic Steps to Develop the Master Address File Prior to Census Day, 2000 and 1990   382 C.2   Types of Enumeration Areas (TEAs)   388 F.1   Model-Based versus Model-Free Treatments for Imputation   446 F.2   EM Algorithm   448

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The 2000 Census: Counting Under Adversity G.1   Simple Illustration of 2000 Census Hot Deck Imputation Process for a Single Cell of an Imputation Matrix   460