TABLE B-3 Summary of the Effectiveness of Psychosocial Interventions in Breast Cancer

I. Relaxation/Imagery*

Citation

Phase

n

Intervention

Duration of Intervention

Effectiveness

Duration of Benefit

Duration of Follow-up

Bridge

1988

Early

154

• Relaxation (audiotape)

• Relaxation/Imagery

6 weeks

• Improved mood, relaxation.

• Imagery and relaxation had additive effects.

6 weeks

6 weeks

Richardson

1997

Early

47

• Relaxation/Imagery group intervention

6 weeks

• Greater acceptance of death, enhanced coping – no effect on mood.

6 weeks

6 weeks

Kolcaba

1999

Early

53

• Guided imagery audiotape

Radiation and 3 weeks after

• Improved “comfort”.

3 weeks post radiation

3 weeks post radiation

Walker

1999

Early

96

• Relaxation/guided imagery (audiotape)

6 cycles of chemotherapy

• Improved overall HRQOL

• Reduced emotional repression.

To end of chemotherapy

To end of chemotherapy

Molassiotis

2002

Early

71

• Progressive muscle relaxation – audio and videotape

6 days

• Improved mood, reduced duration and frequency but not intensity of nausea, vomiting.

14 days

14 days

Arathuzik

1994

Metastatic

24

• Relaxation plus visualization with or without cognitive–behavioral therapy

1 session

• No effect.

1 day

1 day

* Does not include studies in which relaxation/hypnosis/imagery was delivered as a minor part of another intervention.



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