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l Summary of the Power Systems Workshop on Nanotechnology for the Intelligence Community Interim Report October 9-10, 2003 Washington, D.C. Greg Eyring, Rapporteur NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAl ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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1 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract No. 2003-A442100-000 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Intelligence Technology Innovation Center (ITIC). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authoress and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Cover: SEM micrograph images courtesy of DARPA and ITN Energy Systems. A limited number of copies of this report are available from the National Materials Advisory Board, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Keck WS932, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3505 or (202) 334-3718; Internet, Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Stienre, Engineering, and Medirine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research' dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY ROBERT J. HERMANN, Chair, Global Technology Partners, LLC, Hartford, Connecticut ANTONIO A. CANTU, U.S. Secret Service, Washington, D.C. NAMES J. DE YOREO, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California DANIEL H. DOUGHTY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico LAWRENCE H. Dug OIS, SRI International, Menio Park, California ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts WILHELM B. GAUSTER, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York SIEGFRIED W. JANSON, The Aerospace Corporation, E1 Segundo, California ANTHONY F. LAVIANO, Raytheon, E1 Segundo, California DEBRA R. ROLIS ON, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. R. PAUL SCHAUDIES, Science Applications International Corporation, Rockville, Maryland JULIA R. WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois GEORGE M. WHITESIDES, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts ELLEN D. WILLIAMS, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland MARY H. YOUNG, HRL Laboratories, Malibu, California NRC Staff JAMES KILLIAN, Senior Staff Officer RUSSELL MOY, Senior Staff Officer TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Research Associate GREG EYRING, Rapporteur (consultant) l v

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1 NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Chair, Sanclia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico JOHN ALLISON, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan PAUL BECHER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee BARBARA BOYAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ROBERT I. CAVA, Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton, New Jersey FIONA DOYLE, University of California, Berkeley GARY FISCHMAN, Consultant, Palatine, Illinois HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University, Columbus JOHN J. GASSNER, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, Natick, Massachusetts THOMAS S. HARTWICK, Consultant, Redmond, Washington ARTHUR H. HEWER, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio FRANK E. KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors, Warren, Michigan ENRIQUE J. LAVERNIA, University of California, Davis TERRY LOWE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Herndon, Virginia HENRY I. RACK, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina LINDA SCHADLER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York JAMES C. SEFERIS, University of Washington, Seattle T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois NRC Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Director Vl ;

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1 Acknowledgments The committee appreciates the participation of all who attended the workshop ant! the following individuals who prepares! presentations: George Blomgren, Blomgren Consulting Nancy Delaney, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Michael Helter, University of California, San Diego Kevin Hemker, Johns Hopkins University Terry Lowe, Los Alamos National Laboratory (NMAB member) John Miller, Consultant, JME, Inc. Dane Morgan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert Nowack, Consultant Debra Rolison, Naval Research Laboratory (committee member) Ann Marie Sastry, University of Michigan Dan Scherson, Case Western Reserve University Daniel Steingart, University of California Esther Takeuchi, Wilson Greatbatch, Ltd. George Whitesides, Harvard University (committee member) This summary has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review was to provide candid, critical comments to assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain privileged to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this summary: Aladar A. Csontos, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Robert J. Dowding, U.S. Army Research Laboratory David R. Forrest, Naval Surface Warfare Center Robert Shull, National Institute of Standards and Technology The review of this report was overseen by Robert A. Frosch, Harvard University. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. While the individuals listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of the summary rests solely with the rapporteur and the NRC. 1 . . All

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Contents INTRODUCTION TOPIC 1: Overview of Power Technologies TOPIC 2: Nanoscale Properties of Energy Storage Materials TOPIC 3: Device Experience TOPIC 4: Manufacturing and Material Handling Considerations TOPIC 5: Natural Power TOPIC 6: Review of National Science Foundation Report APPENDIXES A Workshop Participants and Agenda, 23 B List of Attendees, 27 C Committee Biographies, 29 D Acronyms, 37 1 IX 3 7 11 15 17 21 .

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