Abbreviations and Acronyms


AMTA

American Membrane Technology Association

AWWA

American Water Works Association

AwwaRF

American Water Works Association Research Foundation


BC

before the Christian era


CO2

Carbon dioxide


ED

electrodialysis

EDR

electrodialysis reversal

EPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency


gal

gallon

gfd

gallons per square foot per day


kPa

kilopascals

kWh

kilowatt hours


L

liter


mg

milligrams

mgd

million gallons per day

m3

cubic meters

MED

multi-effect distillation

MBR

membrane bioreactor

MF

microfiltration

Mgd

million gallons per day

MPa

megapascals

MSF

multi-stage flash distillation


NaCl

sodium chloride

NF

nanofiltration

NRC

National Research Council

NWRI

National Water Research Institute

n-ZLD

near-zero liquid discharge


OWRT

Office of Water Research and Technology

OSW

Office of Saline Water


ppi

pounds per square inch

ppm

parts per million


RO

reverse osmosis


SNL

Sandia National Laboratories



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OCR for page 63
Review of the Desalination and Water Purification Technology Roadmap Abbreviations and Acronyms AMTA American Membrane Technology Association AWWA American Water Works Association AwwaRF American Water Works Association Research Foundation BC before the Christian era CO2 Carbon dioxide ED electrodialysis EDR electrodialysis reversal EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency gal gallon gfd gallons per square foot per day kPa kilopascals kWh kilowatt hours L liter mg milligrams mgd million gallons per day m3 cubic meters MED multi-effect distillation MBR membrane bioreactor MF microfiltration Mgd million gallons per day MPa megapascals MSF multi-stage flash distillation NaCl sodium chloride NF nanofiltration NRC National Research Council NWRI National Water Research Institute n-ZLD near-zero liquid discharge OWRT Office of Water Research and Technology OSW Office of Saline Water ppi pounds per square inch ppm parts per million RO reverse osmosis SNL Sandia National Laboratories

OCR for page 63
Review of the Desalination and Water Purification Technology Roadmap TGPC Texas Groundwater Protection Committee TOC total organic carbon TDS total dissolved solids UF ultrafiltration U.S. United States USBR United States Bureau of Reclamation WHO World Health Organization VC vapor compression ZLD zero liquid discharge