Aminopeptidase

an enzyme (as one found in the duodenum) that hydrolyzes peptides by acting on the peptide bond next to a terminal amino acid containing a free amino group.

Angiotensin

either of two forms of a kinin of which one has marked physiological activity and the other is its physiologically inactive precursor; a synthetic amide derivative of angiotensin II used to treat some forms of hypotension.

Antibiotic

chemical substance produced by a microorganism which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to kill other microorganisms; antibiotics that are nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases.

Antibody

a protein produced by the immune system in response to the introduction of a substance (an antigen) recognized as foreign by the body’s immune system. Antibody interacts with the other components of the immune system and can render the antigen harmless, although for various reasons this may not always occur.

Antigen

a usually protein or carbohydrate substance (as a toxin or enzyme) capable of stimulating an immune response.

Antimicrobial

a drug for killing microorganisms or suppressing their multiplication or growth. For the purposes of this report, antimicrobials include antibiotics and antivirals.

Antiretroviral

substance that stops or suppresses the activity of a retrovirus such as HIV.

Antiviral

drugs, including interferon, which stimulate cellular defenses against viruses, reducing cell DNA synthesis and making cells more resistant to viral genes, enhancing cellular immune responses or suppressing their replication.

Asymptomatic

presenting no symptoms of disease.

Atypical pneumonia

any of a group of pneumonias (as Q fever and psittacosis) caused especially by a virus, mycoplasma, rickettsia, or Chlamydia.

Autophagy

digestion of cellular constituents by enzymes of the same cell.

Avian influenza

any of several highly variable diseases of domestic and wild birds that are caused by orthomyxoviruses and characterized usually by respiratory symptoms but sometimes by gastrointestinal, integumentary, and urogenital symptoms.



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