Appendix F
Forum Member, Speaker, and Staff Biographies

FORUM MEMBERS

ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD, M.D., Ph.D., (Chair), is President of Merck Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. He formerly served Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland as Chairman of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief from 1987 to 1998. Prior to that, Dr. Mahmoud held several positions, spanning 25 years, at the same institutions. Dr. Mahmoud and his colleagues conducted pioneering investigations on the biology and function of eosinophils. He prepared the first specific anti-eosinophil serum, which was used to define the role of these cells in host resistance to helminthic infections. Dr. Mahmoud also established clinical and laboratory investigations in several developing countries, including Kenya, Egypt, and The Philippines, to examine the determinants of infection and disease in schistosomiasis and other infectious agents. This work led to the development of innovative strategies to control those infections, which have been adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as selective population chemotherapy. In recent years, Dr. Mahmoud turned his attention to developing a comprehensive set of responses to the problems associated with emerging infections in the developing world. He was elected to membership of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1978, the Association of American Physicians in 1980, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987. He received the Bailey K. Ashford Award of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 1983, and the Squibb Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America in 1984. Dr. Mahmoud currently serves as Chair of the Forum on Emerging Infections and is a member of the Board on



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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary Appendix F Forum Member, Speaker, and Staff Biographies FORUM MEMBERS ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD, M.D., Ph.D., (Chair), is President of Merck Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. He formerly served Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland as Chairman of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief from 1987 to 1998. Prior to that, Dr. Mahmoud held several positions, spanning 25 years, at the same institutions. Dr. Mahmoud and his colleagues conducted pioneering investigations on the biology and function of eosinophils. He prepared the first specific anti-eosinophil serum, which was used to define the role of these cells in host resistance to helminthic infections. Dr. Mahmoud also established clinical and laboratory investigations in several developing countries, including Kenya, Egypt, and The Philippines, to examine the determinants of infection and disease in schistosomiasis and other infectious agents. This work led to the development of innovative strategies to control those infections, which have been adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as selective population chemotherapy. In recent years, Dr. Mahmoud turned his attention to developing a comprehensive set of responses to the problems associated with emerging infections in the developing world. He was elected to membership of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1978, the Association of American Physicians in 1980, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987. He received the Bailey K. Ashford Award of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 1983, and the Squibb Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America in 1984. Dr. Mahmoud currently serves as Chair of the Forum on Emerging Infections and is a member of the Board on

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary Global Health, both of the Institute of Medicine. He also chairs the U.S. Delegation to the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program. STANLEY M. LEMON, M.D., (Vice-Chair), is Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. He received his under-graduate degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude, and his M.D. with honors from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is board-certified in both. From 1977 to 1983, he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, directing the Hepatitis Laboratory at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in 1983, serving first as Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases, and then Vice Chair for Research of the Department of Medicine. In 1997, Dr. Lemon moved to the University of Texas Medical Branch as Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology & Immunology. He was subsequently appointed Dean pro tem of the School of Medicine in 1999, and permanent Dean of Medicine in 2000. Dr. Lemon’s research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of the positive-stranded RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis C and hepatitis A. He is particularly interested in the molecular mechanisms controlling replication of these RNA genomes and related mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. He has published over 180 papers, and numerous textbook chapters related to hepatitis and other viral infections, and has a longstanding interest in vaccine development. He has served previously as chair of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee and the Vaccines and Related Biologics Advisory Committee of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and is past chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of WHO’s Programme on Vaccine Development. He presently serves as Chairman of the U.S. Hepatitis Panel of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, and recently chaired an Institute of Medicine study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats. DAVID ACHESON, M.D., is Chief Medical Officer at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He received his medical degree at the University of London. After completing internships in general surgery and medicine, he continued his postdoctoral training in Manchester, England, as a Wellcome Trust Research Fellow. He subsequently was a Wellcome Trust Training Fellow in Infectious Diseases at the New England Medical Center and at the Wellcome Research Unit in Vellore, India. Dr. Acheson was Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center until 2001. He then joined the faculties of the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine and Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Maryland Medical

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary School. Currently at the FDA, his research concentration is on foodborne pathogens and encompasses a mixture of molecular pathogenesis, cell biology, and epidemiology. Specifically, his research focuses on Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and understanding toxin interaction with intestinal epithelial cells using tissue culture models. His laboratory has also undertaken a study to examine Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in food animals in relation to virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns. More recently, Dr. Acheson initiated a project to understand the molecular pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni. Other studies have undertaken surveillance of diarrheal disease in the community to determine causes, outcomes, and risk factors of unexplained diarrhea. Dr. Acheson has authored/coauthored over 72 journal articles, and 42 book chapters and reviews, and is coauthor of the book Safe Eating (Dell Health, 1998). He is reviewer of more than 10 journals and is on the editorial board of Infection and Immunity and Clinical Infectious Diseases. Dr. Acheson is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, a Fellow of the Infectious Disease Society of America, and holds several patents. STEVEN J. BRICKNER, Ph.D., is Research Advisor, Antibacterials Chemistry, at Pfizer Global Research and Development. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and was a NIH Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Dr. Brickner is a medicinal chemist with nearly 20 years of research experience in the pharmaceutical industry, all focused on the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. He is an inventor/co-inventor on 21 U.S. patents, and has published numerous scientific papers, primarily within the area of the oxazolidinones. Prior to joining Pfizer in 1996, he led a team at Pharmacia and Upjohn that discovered and developed linezolid, the first member of a new class of antibiotics to be approved in the last 35 years. NANCY CARTER-FOSTER, M.S.T.M., is Senior Advisor for Health Affairs for the U.S. Department of State, Assistant Secretary for Science and Health and the Secretary’s Representative on HIV/AIDS. She is responsible for identifying emerging health issues and making policy recommendations for USG foreign policy concerns regarding international health, and coordinates the Department’s interactions with the non-governmental community. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Infectious Diseases, and a member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and the American Association of the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She has helped bring focus to global health issues in U.S. foreign policy and brought a national security focus to global health. In prior positions as Director for Congressional and Legislative Affairs for the Economic and Business Affairs Bureau of the U.S. Department of State, and Foreign Policy Advisory to the Majority WHIP U.S. House of Representatives, Trade Specialist Advisor to the House of

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary Representatives Ways and Means Trade Subcommittee, and consultant to the World Bank, Asia Technical Environment Division, Ms. Carter-Foster has worked on a wide variety of health, trade and environmental issues amassing in-depth knowledge and experience in policy development and program implementation. GAIL H. CASSELL, Ph.D., is Vice President, Scientific Affairs, Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and (since 1987) Chair, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department which, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director’s Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is past president of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and is serving her third 3-year term as chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of ASM. She is a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director’s Advisory Committee and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served eight years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its chair for three years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored over 275 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases. JESSE L. GOODMAN, M.D., M.P.H., was professor of medicine and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the University of Minnesota, and is now serving as Deputy Director for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, where he is active in a broad range of scientific, public health, and policy issues. After joining the FDA commissioner’s office, he has worked closely with several centers and helped coordinate FDA’s response to the antimicrobial resistance problem. He was co-chair of a recently formed federal interagency task force which developed the national Public Health Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance. He graduated from Harvard College and attended the Albert Einstein College of Medicine followed by internal medicine, hematology, oncology, and infectious diseases training at the University of Pennsylvania and University of California Los Angeles, where he was also chief medical resident. He received his master’s of public health from the University of Minnesota. He has been active in community public health activities, including creating an environmental health partnership in St. Paul, Minnesota. In recent years, his

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary laboratory’s research has focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tickborne diseases. His laboratory isolated the etiological intracellular agent of the emerging tickborne infection, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and identified its leukocyte receptor. He has also been an active clinician and teacher and has directed or participated in major multicenter clinical studies. He is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and, among several honors, has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation. EDUARDO GOTUZZO, M.D., is Principal Professor and Director at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Alexander von Humbolt,” Universidad Peruana Cayetan Heredia (UPCH), in Lima, Peru. As well as Chief of the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital. As well as an Adjunct Professor of Medicine at the University of Alabama-Birmingham School of Medicine. Dr. Gotuzzo has proven to be an active member in numerous international societies such as President of the Latin America Society of Tropical Disease (2000-2003), Member of the Scientific Program of Infectious Diseases Society of America (2000-2003), Member of the International Organizing Committee of the International Congress of Infectious Diseases (1994-Present), President Elect of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (1996-1998), and President of the Peruvian Society of Internal Medicine (1991-1992). He has published over 230 articles and chapters as well as six manuals and one book. Recent honors and awards include being named an Honorary member of American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (since 2002), Associated Member of National Academy of Medicine (since 2002), Honorary Member of Society of Internal Medicine (since 2000), Distinguished Visitor, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Cordoba, Argentina (since 1999), and the Golden Medal for “Outstanding Contribution in the field of Infectious Diseases,” awarded by the Trnava University, Slovakia (1998), among many others. MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D., is Vice President for Biological Programs at Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), a charitable organization working to reduce the global threat from nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Dr. Hamburg is in charge of the biological program area. Before taking on her current position, Dr. Hamburg was the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as a principal policy advisor to the Secretary of Health and Human Services with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the development and review of regulations and/or legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for almost six years as the Commissioner of Health for the City of New York. As chief health officer in the nation’s largest city, Dr. Hamburg’s many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases; the

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels; and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She completed her internship and residency in Internal Medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine, the New York Academy of Medicine, and the Council on Foreign Relations, and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American College of Physicians. CAROLE A. HEILMAN, Ph.D., is Director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Heilman received her bachelor’s degree in biology from Boston University in 1972, and earned her master’s degree and doctorate in microbiology from Rutgers University in 1976 and 1979, respectively. Dr. Heilman began her career at the National Institutes of Health as a postdoctoral research associate with the National Cancer Institute where she carried out research on the regulation of gene expression during cancer development. In 1986, she came to NIAID as the influenza and viral respiratory diseases program officer in DMID and, in 1988, she was appointed chief of the respiratory diseases branch where she coordinated the development of acellular pertussis vaccines. She joined the Division of AIDS as deputy director in 1997 and was responsible for developing the Innovation Grant Program for Approaches in HIV Vaccine Research. She is the recipient of several notable awards for outstanding achievement. Throughout her extramural career, Dr. Heilman has contributed articles on vaccine design and development to many scientific journals and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and WHO in this area. She is also a member of several professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Society of Virology. DAVID L. HEYMANN, M.D., is currently the Executive Director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Communicable Diseases Cluster. From October 1995 to July 1998 he was Director of the WHO Programme on Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control. Prior to becoming director of this program, he was the chief of research activities in the Global Programme on AIDS. From 1976 to 1989, prior to joining WHO, Dr Heymann spent 13 years working as a medical epidemiologist in sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, the former Zaire, and Malawi) on assignment from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in CDC-supported activities aimed at strengthening capacity in surveillance of infectious diseases and their control, with special emphasis on the childhood immunizable diseases, African hemorrhagic fevers, pox viruses, and malaria. While based in Africa, Dr.

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary Heymann participated in the investigation of the first outbreak of Ebola in Yambuku (former Zaire) in 1976, then again investigated the second outbreak of Ebola in 1977 in Tandala, and in 1995 directed the international response to the Ebola outbreak in Kikwit. Prior to 1976, Dr. Heymann spent two years in India as a medical officer in the WHO Smallpox Eradication Programme. Dr. Heymann holds a B.A. from the Pennsylvania State University, an M.D. from Wake Forest University, and a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and completed practical epidemiology training in the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) training program of the CDC. He has published 131 scientific articles on infectious diseases in peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals. JAMES M. HUGHES, M.D., received his B.A. in 1966 and M.D. in 1971 from Stanford University. He completed a residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Virginia. He is board-certified in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and preventive medicine. He first joined CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in 1973. During his CDC career, he has worked primarily in the areas of foodborne disease and infection control in health care settings. He became Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases in 1992. The center is currently working to address domestic and global challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is an Assistant Surgeon General in the Public Health Service. LONNIE KING, D.V.M., is Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University. Dr. King’s previous positions include both Associate Administrator and Administrator of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and Deputy Administrator for USDA/APHIS/Veterinary Services. Before his government career, Dr. King was in private practice. He also has experience as a field veterinary medical officer, station epidemiologist, and staff member on assignments involving Emergency Programs and Animal Health Information. Dr. King has also directed the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Office of Governmental Relations, and is certified in the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. He has served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medicine Colleges, and currently serves as Co-Chair of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues, Lead Dean at Michigan State University for food safety with responsibility for the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, and the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases. He is also co-developer and course leader for Science, Politics, and Animal Health Policy. Dr. King received his B.S. and D.V.M. degrees from The Ohio State University, and his M.S. degree in

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary epidemiology from the University of Minnesota. He has also completed the Senior Executive Program at Harvard University, and received a M.P.A. from American University. Dr. King previously served on the Committee for Opportunities in Agriculture, the Steering Committee for a Workshop on the Control and Prevention of Animal Diseases, and the Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption. JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D., is Professor emeritus of Molecular Genetics and Informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at The Rockefeller University, New York, New York. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. He has a keen interest in international health and was co-chair of a previous Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (1990–1992) and currently is co-chair of the Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine. JOSEPH MALONE, M.D., the director of the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infection System (DoD-GEIS), completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program in June, 2003. He graduated from Boston University School of Medicine in 1980, and trained in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Naval Hospitals in San Diego, and Bethesda, MD leading to board certification. He was a staff physician at the Naval Hospitals in San Diego, CA and Bethesda, MD. He deployed to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in support of Operation Safe Harbor and was attached to Surgical Team 1 during Operation Desert Shield. He later directed the Infectious Disease Division and HIV unit at the Naval Medical Center at Portsmouth, VA, from 1996-1996. In 1999 he worked for the Disease Surveillance Program (in affiliation with DoD-GEIS) at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 in Cairo, Egypt. While at CDC’s EIS program he was deployed to New York City to assist in the emergency public health response after the September 11th 2001attacks, assisted in the public health response to documented anthrax contamination in Kansas City and was the acting state epidemiologist for the State of Missouri from February-June 2003. Capt. Malone has several military awards, including the HHS/USPHS Crisis Response Service Award. He is an Associate Professor at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences and holds the Certificate of Knowledge in Travelers’ Health and Tropical Medicine from the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. He has over 20 publications. LYNN MARKS, M.D., is board-certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He was on faculty at the University of South Alabama College of Medicine in the Infectious Diseases department focusing on patient care, teaching, and research. His academic research interest was on the molecular genetics of bacte-

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary rial pathogenicity. He subsequently joined SmithKline Beecham’s (now GlaxoSmithKline) anti-infectives clinical group and later progressed to global head of the Consumer Healthcare Division Medical and Regulatory Group. He then returned to pharmaceutical research and development as global head of the Infectious Diseases Therapeutic Area Strategy Team for GlaxoSmithKline. STEPHEN S. MORSE, Ph.D., is Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, and a faculty member in the Epidemiology Department. Dr. Morse recently returned to Columbia from 4 years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Before coming to Columbia, he was Assistant Professor (Virology) at The Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. Dr. Morse is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996) (selected by American Scientist for its list of “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century”), and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He currently serves as a Section Editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute’s journal Research in Virology. Dr. Morse was Chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses (for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections); served as a member of the Institute of Medicine-National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (and chaired its Task Force on Viruses), and was a contributor to its report, Emerging Infections (1992); was a member of the IOM’s Committee on Xenograft Transplantation; currently serves on the Steering Committee of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Emerging Infections, and has served as an adviser to WHO, PAHO (Pan-American Health Organization), FDA, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other agencies. He is a Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past Chair of its Microbiology Section. He was the founding Chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota where he is also Professor at the School of Public Health. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epidemiologist and Chief of the Acute Disease Epidemiology Section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He has received numerous research awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more than 240 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best selling book, Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He currently serves on the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM) Forum on Emerging Infections. He has also served on the IOM Committee, Food Safety, Production to Consumption and the IOM Committee on the Department of Defense Persian Gulf Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program, and as a reviewer for the IOM report on chemical and biological terrorism. GEORGE POSTE, Ph.D., D.V.M., is Director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute and Dell E. Webb Distinguished Professor of Biology at Arizona State University. From 1992 to 1999 he was Chief Science and Technology Officer and President, Research and Development of SmithKline Beecham (SB). During his tenure at SB he was associated with the successful registration of 29 drug, vaccine and diagnostic products. He is Chairman of diaDexus and Structural GenomiX in California and Orchid Biosciences in Princeton. He serves on the Board of Directors of AdvancePCS and Monsanto. He is an advisor on biotechnology to several venture capital funds and investment banks. In May 2003 he was appointed as Director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. This is a major new initiative combining research groups in biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, advanced computing and neuromorphic engineering. He is a Fellow of Pembroke College Cambridge and Distinguished Fellow at the Hoover Institution and Stanford University. He is a member of the Defense Science Board of the U.S. Department of Defense and in this capacity he Chairs the Task Force on Bioterrorism. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences Working Group on Defense Against Bioweapons. Dr. Poste is a Board Certified Pathologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. He was awarded the rank of Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1999 for services to medicine and for the advancement of biotechnology. He has published over 350 scientific papers, co-edited 15 books on cancer, biotechnology and infectious diseases and serves on the Editorial Board of multiple technical journals. He is invited routinely to be the keynote speaker at a wide variety of academic, corporate, investment and government meetings to discuss the impact of biotechnology and genetics on healthcare and the challenges posed by bioterrorism. Dr. Poste is married with three children. His personal interests are in military history, photography, automobile racing and exploring the wilderness zones of the American West. GARY A. ROSELLE, M.D., received his M.D. from Ohio State University School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at Northwestern University

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary School of Medicine and his Infectious Diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. Dr. Roselle is the Program Director for Infectious Diseases for the VA Central Office in Washington, D.C., as well as the Chief of the Medical Service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. He is a professor of medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr. Roselle has received commendations from the Cincinnati Medical Center Director, the Under Secretary for Health for the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for his work in the infectious diseases program for the Department of Veterans Affairs. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings, and has published over 80 papers and several book chapters. JANET SHOEMAKER, is director of the American Society for Microbiology’s Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology and has played a key role in American Society for Microbiology (ASM) projects, including the production of the ASM Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as Assistant Director of Public Affairs for ASM, as ASM coordinator of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State, and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts, and is a graduate of the George Washington University programs in public policy and in editing and publications. She has served as commissioner to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, and as the ASM representative to the ad hoc Group for Medical Research Funding, and is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has co-authored published articles on research funding, biotechnology, biological weapons control, and public policy issues related to microbiology. P. FREDERICK SPARLING, M.D., is J. Herbert Bate Professor Emeritus of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill, and is Director of the North Carolina Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Center. Previously, he served as chair of the Department of Medicine and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC.

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary He was president of the Infectious Disease Society of America in 1996-1997. He was also a member of the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1991-1992). Dr. Sparling’s laboratory research is in the molecular biology of bacterial outer membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His current studies focus on the biochemistry and genetics of iron-scavenging mechanisms used by gonococci and meningococci and the structure and function of the gonococcal porin proteins. He is pursuing the goal of a vaccine for gonorrhea. SPEAKERS ABU SALEH M ABDULLAH, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D., is a Research Assistant Professor in the Department of Community Medicine, The University of Hong Kong. Trained as a family physician, he completed his Ph.D. in Community Medicine and specializes in Public Health Medicine. He is a Diplomat member of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine, the Royal College of Physicians, United Kingdom. He is a counsellor of the Asia Pacific Travel Health Society, a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Travel Medicine and the regional editor of the International Society of Travel Medicine Newsletter. He is a regular manuscript reviewer for several national and international journals. Currently, he is also the Director of the Hong Kong Smoking Cessation Health Centre at Ruttonjee Hospital and an active member of the Advisory Council on AIDS of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. He also serves as member to several other national and international organizations including International Society for Infectious Disease, Asia Pacific Travel Health Society, Asia Pacific AIDS Society and the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (USA). Dr. Abdullah has written few book chapters and his research work has been published in several prestigious journals including the Lancet, Emerging Infectious Disease, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, International Journal of STD & AIDS, Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology and Preventive Medicine. ROBERT BREIMAN, M.D., is seconded since 2000 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B)—Centre for Health and Population Research where he is the head of the Programme on Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences. Before joining ICDDR,B, Dr. Breiman was the Director of the United States National Vaccine Program Office from 1995-2000, and was the Chief of the Bacterial Respiratory Diseases Branch Epidemiology Section at CDC from 1989-1997. Dr. Breiman’s research focus includes emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, including respiratory infections, encephalitis, dengue, typhoid, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis and the evaluation of new, promising vaccines to prevent disease in developing countries; currently, he is working on studies to evaluate new rotavirus, cholera, and influenza vaccines. In March and April 2003,

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary Dr. Breiman was the leader of a World Health Organization team of international expert consultants which provided assistance to WHO and the government of China on addressing the public health threat from severe acute respiratory disease (SARS); in January 2004, he returned to Beijing and Guangzhou, China,at the request of WHO to lead a team of experts in providing assistance in assessing the reappearance of SARS in Guangdong Province. MARTIN S. CETRON, M.D., received his B.A. from Dartmouth College in 1981, and his M.D. from Tufts University in 1985. He trained in Internal Medicine at the University of Virginia and Infectious Diseases at the University of Washington before becoming a Commissioned Officer in the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) in 1992. Dr. Cetron is currently the Deputy Director for the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) whose mission is to prevent introduction and spread of infectious diseases in the U.S. and to prevent morbidity and mortality among immigrants, refugees, migrant workers, and international travelers. Dr Cetron holds faculty appointments in Division of Infectious Disease at the Emory University School of Medicine and Department of Epidemiology at Rollins School of Public Health. His primary research interest is international health and global migration with a focus on emerging infections, tropical diseases, and vaccine-preventable diseases in mobile populations. Dr. Cetron has worked at CDC since 1992 where he has lead numerous domestic and international outbreak investigations, conducted epidemiologic research throughout the world, and been involved in several domestic and international emergency responses to provide medical screening and disease prevention programs to refugees prior to U.S. resettlement. Recently, Dr Cetron has played a principal role in high profile CDC responses to intentional and naturally-acquired emerging infectious disease outbreaks including the anthrax bioterrorism incident in the Fall of 2001, the Global SARS epidemic in Spring 2003 and Monkeypox Outbreak in Summer 2003. PETER DRAGOVICH, Ph.D., is Senior Director, Head of Viral Diseases Drug Discovery at the La Jolla laboratories of Pfizer Global Research and Development. He was previously employed by Agouron Pharmaceuticals (1993-1999) and, via a corporate merger, the Warner-Lambert company (1999-2000). Prior to joining PGRD-La Jolla, Dr. Dragovich served in a number of capacities in the Agouron and Warner-Lambert organizations including Senior Scientist, Project Leader, and Group Leader (medicinal chemistry). Dr. Dragovich received a B.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1988 and a Ph.D. in Chemistry (Biology minor) from the California Institute of Technology in 1993. YANZHONG HUANG, Ph.D., is assistant professor in the John C. Whitehead School of Diplomacy and International Relations at Seton Hall University, where

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary he directs the school’s Center for Global Health Studies. His current research interests include health politics in post-Mao China, the impact of infectious diseases on state capacity, and SARS and the political economy of contagion in Pacific Rim. His most recent publications include a monograph “Mortal Peril: Public Health in China and Its Security Implications” (Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 2003). In May of 2003, he appeared before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China to testify about the politics of SARS in China. Dr. Huang received a Ph.D. degree in political science from the University of Chicago. NATHANIEL HUPERT, M.D., M.P.H., is an Assistant Professor of Public Health and Medicine at Weill Medical College of Cornell University in New York City. In addition to maintaining a primary care internal medicine practice, Dr. Hupert has directed a number of federally funded studies since 2000 using computer modeling to improve public health response strategies for intentional and natural outbreaks of disease. Using tools developed by Dr. Hupert and colleagues such as the Weill/Cornell Bioterrorism and Epidemic Outbreak Response Model (BERM, available online at www.ahrq.gov/research/biomodel.htm), public health and emergency response planners from around the country can customize resource deployment strategies to suit local needs for mass prophylaxis or vaccination strategies. Dr. Hupert is a member of both local and national expert panels on bioterrorism response and has provided computer modeling support to the New York City Office of Emergency Management and to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene since the spring of 2001. He has served as a lecturer for the CDC Strategic National Stockpile Program and the US Public Health Service Commissioned Corps Readiness Force on antibiotic dispensing strategies. Currently he is a member of the New York Presbyterian Hospital Biological Pathogens Task Force. ANN MARIE KIMBALL, M.D., M.P.H., is currently Associate Professor, Health Services and Epidemiology, Adjunct in Medicine, University of Washington. She also serves as the Director and Graduate Program Coordinator, M.P.H. Program, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington. Dr. Kimball has devoted her career to studying health issues and has worked in numerous positions in the United States and abroad. Her research interests are primarily in international health, HIV/AIDS, emerging infections, and maternal and child health. She has previously served as a panelist on the IOM Forum on Emerging Infections, as a member of the Department of Health Emerging and Reemerging Diseases Strategic Planning Task Force, as regional adviser for PAHO in HIV/AIDS, and as the Chair of the National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors in the United States. JAMES W. LEDUC, Ph.D., is the Director, Division of Viral and Rickettsial

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention where he coordinates research activities, prevention initiatives and outbreak investigations for viral and rickettsial pathogens of global importance, including viral hemorrhagic fevers, influenza and other respiratory infections, childhood viral diseases, and newly emerging diseases such as SARS. Prior to becoming Director of the Division, he served as the Associate Director for Global Health (1996-2000) in the Office of the Director, National Center for Infectious Diseases at CDC, and was a Medical Officer in charge of arboviruses and viral hemorrhagic fevers at the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland (1992-1996). He also held leadership positions during a 23-year career as a U.S. Army officer in the medical research and development command, with assignments in Brazil, Panama and at various locations in the United States, including the Walter Reed Army Medical Center and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. He is a native of southern California and earned his doctoral degree from the University of California at Los Angeles. DONALD E. LOW, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., holds a Fellowship in Medical Microbiology, Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases. He is a Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology and Medicine at the University of Toronto where he is the Head of the Division of Microbiology in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology. He is Chief of the Toronto Medical Laboratories and Mount Sinai Hospital Department of Microbiology; a laboratory which provides diagnostic services to eleven hospitals in the Toronto area. He is also Chair of the National Advisory Committee on Chemical, Biological, Radio-nuclear Safety, Security and Research, Health Canada; and Member of the National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards. Dr. Low’s primary research interests are in the study of epidemiology and the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in community and hospital pathogens. Other research interests include the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of severe invasive streptococcal diseases. JOHN MACKENZIE, Ph.D., is presently Professor of Microbiology (from 1995) and Professor of Tropical Infectious Diseases (from 1999), University of Queensland, Australia. He was previously Professor (1994), Associate Professor (1980-1994), and Senior Lecturer (1973-1999) at the University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, Head of Genetics Department at the Animal Virus Research Institute, Pirbright, England (1990-1992), and Research Fellow at the Public Health Research Institute, New York (1969-1970). He was appointed to a short-term consultancy as Professional Officer at the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003-2004 to convene the WHO International SARS Research Advisory Committee, and to chair the WHO SARS Laboratory Network. Honorary and elected positions have included Secretary-General, International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) (1999-2005); Member-at-Large, Executive Board of IUMS (1994-1999); Member of the WHO Global Outbreak Alert and

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary Response Network Steering Committee (since 2000); Member of the WHO Scientific Advisory Committee for Global Health Security (since 2001); President of the Asian-Pacific Society for Medical Virology (2000-2003); President of the Australian Society for Microbiology (1992-1994). He was leader of the first WHO mission into China in March 2003 to investigate cases of atypical pneumonia in Guangdong Province, and the etiological relationship of these cases to SARS. Recent research has been concerned with the ecology, epidemiology, and molecular phylogeny of mosquito-borne viruses, especially Japanese encephalitis virus, and emergent zoonotic viruses. He received the award of Officer in the Order of Australia (AO) in 2001. GENE MATTHEWS, J.D., as the Legal Advisor to CDC in Atlanta and, as the manager of the legal staff there for 25 years, has handled a wide range of public health law issues. His initial work at CDC coincided with the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. His experience has included questions of patient confidentiality, access to records, liability for vaccine-related injuries, occupational health protection, environmental concerns, and chronic disease prevention strategies. He has litigated important public health lawsuits and civil discovery questions. Mr. Matthews is widely published and is frequently called upon to lecture on cutting-edge legal issues facing CDC, such as AIDS, livable communities, and bioterrorism preparedness. Most recently, Mr. Matthews has also provided leadership for CDC’s development of a newly created Public Health Law Program designed to improve the understanding of the use of laws as tools of public health in the 21st century. He has guided this exciting initiative to reach out both to the legal community and to public health practitioners through research, training, information, and partnerships. Mr. Matthews is a graduate of the University of North Carolina School of Law and is an avid distance swimmer. PROFESSOR WARWICK J. MCKIBBIN, Ph.D., is Professor of International Economics and Convenor of the Economics Division in the Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies at the Australian National University. He is also a Professorial Fellow at the Lowy Institute for International Policy; a nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington D.C. and President of McKibbin Software Group. He is a member of the Board of the Reserve Bank of Australia. Professor McKibbin has worked at the Reserve Bank of Australia, Japanese Ministry of Finance, US Congressional Budget office and World Bank. He has been a consultant for many international agencies and a range of governments on issues of macroeconomic policy, international trade and finance and green-house policy issues. Professor McKibbin has published widely in technical journals and the popular press including the book “Global Linkages: Macroeconomic Interdependence and Cooperation in the World Economy” written with Professor Jeffrey Sachs of Harvard University and the new book “Climate Change Policy after Kyoto: A Blueprint for a Realistic Approach” with Professor Peter Wilcoxen

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary of the University of Texas. He received his B.Com. (Honours 1) and University Medal from University of NSW (1980) and his A.M. (1984) and a Ph.D. (1986) from Harvard University. He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Social Sciences and a founding member of the Harvard University Asian Economic Panel. He was awarded the Centenary medal in 2003 “For Service to Australian Society through Economic Policy and Tertiary Education.” KAREN J. MONAGHAN, joined the National Intelligence Council as the Deputy National Intelligence Officer for Economics and Global Issues in May 2002. She was named Acting NIO in September 2002. Prioir to her assignment with the NIC, she served in the Department of State and in the Central Intelligence Agency’s Directorate of the Intelligence (DI) in a variety of managerial and analytic positions. Most recently she supervised current and long-term analysis of Asian Economic developments. Ms. Monaghan also spearheaded a corporate outreach program, tapping into corporate and financial sector expertise to help bolster financial vulnerability analysis and the impact of international capital flows on national and regional stability among emerging market countries. Ms. Monaghan is a graduate of Vassar College and undertook graduate studies in international relations and economics at St. Antony’s College, Oxford University, where she earned an M.Phil. degree in 1982. Currently, Ms. Monaghan is an adjunct professor at the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. She has published extensively on issues of economic development and global issues. AMY PATICK, Ph.D., is Senior Director, Head of Virology, at Pfizer Global Research and Development, La Jolla (formerly Agouron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.). Amy earned her Ph.D. in Medical Microbiology from the University of Wisconsin in1987. She has been involved in antiviral drug research since 1990 initially at Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. and subsequently (1994–present) at Pfizer Global Research and Development, La Jolla. Her research efforts are currently focused on antiviral chemotherapy and the emergence of resistance to antiviral agents. She has published more than 100 articles and abstracts in prominent scientific journals in the area of antiviral research. She is the Secretary for the International Society for Antiviral Research and has served as a member on the HIV Inter-company Collaborative Committee, HIV Resistance Collaborative Group, and the Scientific Subcommittee, International Workshop on HIV Resistance and Treatment Strategies. Amy is a regular ad hoc reviewer for several journals including Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, and Antiviral Therapy. LINDA J. SAIF, Ph.D., is Professor and Researcher at the Ohio State University’s Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). Dr. Saif brings to the committee her contributions to the study of virology, disease pathogenesis, and immunity, in both animal and human health, and mechanisms

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary of immunity against intestinal infections. Dr. Saif’s research focuses on enteric viruses, including rotaviruses, caliciviruses, and coronaviruses, which cause mortality and morbidity in both food-producing animals and humans. During the past 30 years, she has identified new intestinal viruses and developed diagnostic tests and research methods for working with them in the laboratory. Furthermore, she discovered viruses that cause intestinal diseases in livestock, and developed methods for their control. She is also credited with discovering the potential of enteric viral infections in animals to infect human populations in epidemic proportions. One example is Dr. Saif’s ongoing effort to develop safe and effective vaccines for rotavirus diarrhea, which kills nearly a half million children every year. In 2002, Dr. Saif became the first Ohio State researcher not based on the Columbus campus to be recognized as a Distinguished University Professor, and was awarded an honorary doctorate by Belgium’s Ghent University. She was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2003. Dr. Saif earned her bachelor’s degree from the College of Wooster in 1969, and received her master’s degree (1971) and doctorate (1976) in microbiology/immunology from the Ohio State University. RANGA SAMPATH, Ph.D., is the Director of Genomics and Computational Biology at Ibis Therapeutics, a division of Isis Pharmaceuticals. He leads Ibis’s genomics efforts, both in RNA-based drug discovery and in microbial detection and diagnosis. Dr. Sampath has over 7 years of experience in the pharmaceutical industry and has been the lead genomics investigator on several DARPA programs related to bioinformatics, drug discovery and biological warfare agent detection and treatment. He has several publications and patents in RNA structure and target discovery, computational algorithms for RNA structure prediction, and pathogen and infectious agent diagnostics. Prior to joining Ibis Therapeutics, Dr. Sampath was a postdoctoral fellow at the Indiana University School of Medicine. He received his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Rice University (Houston, Texas), and bachelor’s in chemical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (Chennai, India). JEROME J. SCHENTAG, Pharm.D., is Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacy, at the University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. He is also Chief Executive Officer at CPL Associates LLC, a private CRO. His Research emphasis has been in the clinical applications of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models to anti-infectives and other classes of pharmaceuticals used in seriously ill patients. Earlier work established correlations between pharmacokinetic parameters and biologic response to disease, drug efficacy and toxicity and managing antimicrobial resistance. Dr. Schentag received his Pharm.D. degree from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science and postdoctoral fellowship in clinical pharmacokinetics from SUNY Buffalo School of Pharmacy. A member of numerous professional societies, including the American Society for

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary Microbiology and American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Dr. Schentag is a Fellow of American College of Clinical Pharmacy and the American College of Clinical Pharmacology. He has authored over 300 original research papers in prestigious journals, including the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Pharmacotherapy, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Annals of Pharmacotherapy and Journal of the American Medical Association. He has lectured extensively, both nationally and internationally, on a wide variety of topics, notably the clinical application of PK/PD and managing antimicrobial resistance. ALAN R. SHAW, Ph.D., is the Executive Director of Virus & Cell Biology at Merck Research Laboratories, and is responsible for all aspects of live virus vaccine research, as well as technical aspects of development and production. He is also responsible for research and early development of recombinant protein-based vaccines. Prior to joining Merck, Dr. Shaw worked on vaccines for hepatitis B and Plasmodium falciparum as well as cytokines and natural inhibitors of interleukin-1 at Biogen, SA in Geneva, Switzerland. Dr. Shaw received a B.A. from Rice University, a M.S. in molecular biology from the University of Texas at Dallas, and a Ph.D. in molecular biology at the Medical College of Ohio. He had postdoctoral fellowships at the International Institute of Cellular Pathology in Brussels and the Rockefeller University. Dr. Shaw is the past Chairman of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association Biologicals Committee. ROBERT G. WEBSTER, Ph.D., is Professor in the Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. A native of New Zealand, Dr. Webster received his B. Sc. and M. Sc. in Microbiology from Otago University in New Zealand. In 1962, he earned his Ph.D. from the Australian National University and spent the next two years as a Fullbright Scholar working on influenza in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Since 1968, Dr. Webster has been with St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. In 1988, he was appointed to the Rose Marie Thomas Chair in Virology. In 1989, he was admitted to the Royal Society of London in recognition for his contribution to influenza virus research. In 1998 he was appointed to the National Academy of Sciences of the United States. In 2002 he received the Twelfth Annual Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Achievement in Infectious Disease Research. Dr. Webster is Director of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Studies on the Ecology of Influenza in Animals and Birds. His interests include the structure and function of influenza virus proteins and the development of new vaccines and antivirals. The major focus of his research is the importance of influenza viruses in wild aquatic birds as a major reservoir of influenza viruses and their role in the evolution of new pandemic strains for humans and lower

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary animals. His curriculum vitae contains over 450 original articles and reviews on influenza viruses. FORUM STAFF STACEY L. KNOBLER, is the director of the Forum on Microbial Threats at the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and a senior program officer for the Board on Global Health (BGH). She has served as the director of the BGH study, Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders in Developing Countries and as a research associate for the Board's earlier studies on The Assessment of Future Scientific Needs for Live Variola (Smallpox) Virus and Cardiovascular Disease in Developing Countries. Previously, Ms. Knobler worked at the Brookings Institution, Foreign Policy Studies Program and as an Arms Control and Democratization Consultant for the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in Vienna and Bosnia-Herzegovina. She has also worked as a research and negotiations analyst in Israel and Palestine. She has conducted research and published on issues that include, biological and nuclear weapons control, foreign aid, health in developing countries, poverty and public assistance, and the Arab-Israeli peace process. KARL GALLE, Ph.D., is a research associate for the president’s office at the Institute of Medicine. He received his Ph.D. in the history and philosophy of science from the University of London in 2002, prior to joining the National Academies through the Christine Mirzayan internship program in science and technology policy. He has worked at the Institute of Medicine since 2003 and also holds a B.A. in international development from Williams College, an M.A. in the conceptual foundations of science from the University of Chicago, and an M.Sc. in the history of science and medicine from the University of London. KATHERINE A. OBERHOLTZER, is research assistant for the Institute of Medicine’s Board on Global Health. She recently played a key role in the development and production of the BGH study, Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response. Katherine received her B.S. in Integrated Science and Technology with a concentration in Biotechnology from James Madison University in 2000. She is currently pursuing her Professional Editing Certificate at the George Washington University. Katherine has worked as the Meeting Coordinator for the Maryland AIDS Education and Training Center of the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. Katherine joined the staff at the Institute of Medicine in December 2000. LAURA SIVITZ, M.S.J., joined the staff of the Institute of Medicine in 2002 as

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Learning From Sars: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak - Workshop Summary the research associate in an 18-month study on prion diseases. She played a leadership role in the development, production, and dissemination of the report Advancing Prion Science: Guidance for the National Prion Research Program. In November 2003, she joined the staff of the Forum on Microbial Threats in the Board on Global Health at IOM. Previously, Ms. Sivitz had served as a technology reporter for Washington Techway magazine; as the science-writer intern for Science News; as the Washington correspondent for the York Daily Record of Pennsylvania; and as a science, legal, and business reporter for the Medill News Service of Chicago. She won a National Science Foundation fellowship in 1994 to conduct research at the University of Pennsylvania on piezoelectric ceramics for use in mammography systems. Ms. Sivitz received her bachelor of arts in physics from Bryn Mawr College in 1996 and her master of science in journalism from Northwestern University in 2001.

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