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2003 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Marine fords Science and Technology Program Committee for the Review of ONR's Marine Corps Science and Technology Program Naval Stuclies Boa rcl Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.efdu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. N00014-00-G-0230, DO #15, between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of the Navy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authoress and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International S tandard B ook Number 0 - 309 -08981 - 6 (B ook) International Standard Book Number 0-309-52625-6 (PDF) Copies available from: Naval Studies Board The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room WS904 Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Stienre, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad commu- nity of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Acad- emies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www. nationa l-academies.org

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COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM FRANK A. HORRIGAN, Bedford, Massachusetts, Chair ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University CHARLES F. BOLDEN, JR., TechTrans International, Inc. MICHAEL S. BRIDGMAN, Logistics Management Institute JOHN D. CASKO, Northrop Grumman Corporation NANCY M. HAEGEL, Naval Postgraduate School R. B OWEN LOFTIN, Old Dominion University GEOFFREY C. ORSAK, Southern Methodist University IRENE C. PEDEN, University of Washington FREDERICK W. RIEDEL, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University JAMES K. STEDMAN, Glastonbury, Connecticut H. GREGORY TORNATORE, Ellicott City, Maryland JUD W. VIRDEN, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PAUL S. WEISS, Pennsylvania State University LEO YOUNG, Baltimore, Maryland Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director (on leave as of July 12, 2003) CHARLES F. DRAPER, Acting Director (as of July 12, 2003) MICHAEL L. WILSON, Study Director MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant IAN M. CAMERON, Project Assistant SIDNEY G. REED, JR., Consultant IV

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NAVAL STUDIES BOARD VINCENT VITTO, Charles S. Draper Laboratory, Inc., Chair JOSEPH B. REAGAN, Saratoga, California, Vice Chair ARTHUR B. BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, Special Advisor JAMES P. BROOKS, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems JOHN D. CHRISTIE, Logistics Management Institute RUTH A. DAVID, Analytic Services, Inc. PAUL K. DAVIS, RAND and RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies ANTONIO L. ELIAS, Orbital Sciences Corporation BRIG "CHIP" ELLIOTT, BEN Technologies FRANK A. HORRIGAN, Bedford, Massachusetts JOHN W. HUTCHINS ON, Harvard University RICHARD J. IVANETICH, Institute for Defense Analyses HARRY W. JENKINS, JR., ITT Industries MIRIAM E. JOHN, Sandia National Laboratories DAVID V. KALBAUGH, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University ANNETTE J. KRYGIEL, Great Falls, Virginia L. DAVID MONTAGUE, Menlo Park, California WILLIAM B. MORGAN, Rockville, Maryland JOHN H. MOXLEY III, Korn/Ferry International ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University NILS R. SANDELL, JR., ALPHATECH, Inc. JAMES M. SINNETT, Ballwin, Missouri WILLIAM D. SMITH, Fayetteville, Pennsylvania RICHARD L. WADE, Risk Management Sciences MITZI M. WERTHEIM, Center for Naval Analyses CINDY WILLIAMS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Navy Liaison Representatives RADM LEWIS W. CRENSHAW, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (through May 31, 2003) RADM JOSEPH A. SESTAK, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 (as ofJulyl5, 2003) RADM JAY M. COHEN, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 Marine Corps Liaison Representative LTGEN EDWARD HANLON, JR., USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director (on leave as of July 12, 2003) CHARLES F. DRAPER, Acting Director (as of July 12, 2003) MICHAEL L. WILSON, Program Officer MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant IAN M. CAMERON, Project Assistant v

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Prepublication Copy Subject to Further Editorial Correction SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant IAN M. CAMERON, Project Assistant V1

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Preface The mission of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is to maintain a close relationship with the research and development community and the operational community to support long-range research, foster discovery, nurture future generations of researchers, produce new technologies that meet known naval requirements, and provide innovations in fields relevant to the future Navy and Marine Corps. Accordingly, ONR supports research activities across a broad range of scientific and engineering disci- plines. As one means of ensuring that its investments appropriately address naval priorities and require- ments and that its programs are of high scientific and technical quality, ONR requires each of its departments to undergo an annual review, with a detailed focus on about one-third of the reviewed department's programs. Since 1999, the Naval Expeditionary Warfare Department (Code 35) of ONR has requested that the Naval Studies Board (NSB) of the National Research Council (NRC) conduct these reviews for its constituent divisions. The first review of ONR's Marine Corps Science and Tech- nology (MCS&T) program was conducted in 2000.~ The MCS&T program reviewed in this report is administered through the Expeditionary Warfare Operations Technology Division (Code 353) of Code 35. At the request of ONR, the NRC established the Committee for the Review of ONR's Marine Corps Science and Technology Program (see Appendix A for biographies of the committee members) to review and evaluate Code 353 efforts in (1) basic research (6.1~; (2) applied research (6.2) and advanced technology development (6.3~; and (3) the Littoral Combat (LC) component of the Littoral Combat and Power Projection Future Naval Capability (FNC). Note that because the LC-FNC was initiated after the NSB's 2000 review of the MCS&T 1Naval Studies Board, National Research Council. 2000. 2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Marine Corps Science and Technology Program, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. . . V11

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. . . vile PREFACE program, the current review represents a first look at this part of the program. The committee-selected review criteria were as follows: Impact on and relevance to Marine Corps needs; Appropriateness of the investment strategy within the context of Marine Corps priorities and requirements; Navy/Marine Corps program integration effectiveness; Balance of size, time horizon, and risk of funded programs; Scientific and technical quality; and Progress by the MCS&T program subsequent to the 2000 NSB review. The committee was also asked to identify promising new research areas that should be considered for inclusion in future MCS&T program activities. The committee met once, May 13-15, 2003, in Washington, D.C., both to hear presentations on more than 80 funded Code 353 projects and to prepare an initial draft report (see Appendix B for the meeting's agenda). In addition, committee members received background material from Code 353 before and after the meeting. Owing to variations in the content of individual presentations, it proved difficult to evaluate each Code 353 project uniformly against the criteria listed above. However, all criteria were considered by the committee in developing its recommendations. The months between the committee meeting and the publication of this report were spent preparing and revising the draft manuscript, gathering additional information, submitting the report to external review and responding to the review comments, editing the report, and subjecting it to a security review. The committee' s report reflects its consensus views on the issues addressed.

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the delibera- tive process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David E. Borth, Motorola Corporation, Milton Finger, Livermore, California, Ernest N. Petrick, Ann Arbor, Michigan, David E. Richwine, National Air and Space Museum? Charles H. Sinex, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Merrill I. Skolnik, Baltimore, Maryland, and Christopher D. Wickens, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lee M. Hunt, Alexandria, Virginia. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. IX

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Prepublication Copy Subject to Further Editorial Correction Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY MARINE CORPS S&T PROGRAM AS A WHOLE Program Structure . Observations and Recommendations............................... 2 . ES-I LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY 2-1 Overview EC IIntelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance for the Amphibious Force 2-3 EC 2 Expeditionary Fire Support for the MAGTF 2-8 EC 3 MAGTF Maneuver in the Littorals 2-19 EC 4Command and Control 2-18 CORE THRUSTS......... Overview ..3-1 Maneuver Thrust Firepower Thrust......... Mine Countermeasures Thrust. ~ n~i~tirc Threat BASIC RESEARCH 3 -6 3-14 ~~ I',' - ~~ 3-1 8 Human Performance, Training, and Education Thrust 3-23 Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4lSR) Thrust 3-28 4-1 Overview 4-1 4-2 Projects Reviewed.... APPENDIXES A B C D Committee and Staff Biographies........ Agenda for the Committee's Meeting. Acronyms and Abbreviations .................. Technology Readiness LeveIs.................. x . A-1 ............................................................................ B-l .... C-l ....D-I

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY MARINE CORPS S&T PROGRAM AS A WHOLE Program Structure, 14 Observations and Recommendations, 16 LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY Overview, 28 EC 1 Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance for the Amphibious Force, 30 EC 2 Expeditionary Fire Support for the MAGTF, 35 EC 3 MAGTF Maneuver in the Littorals, 41 EC 4 Command and Control, 45 3 CORE THRUSTS Overview, 49 Maneuver Thrust, 50 Firepower Thrust, 54 Mine Countermeasures Thrust, 62 Logistics Thrust, 65 Human Performance, Training, and Education Thrust, 70 Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) Thrust, 75 Xl 1 14 28 49

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. . xt! 4 BASIC RESEARCH Overview, 83 Projects Reviewed, 84 APPENDIXES A Committee and Staff Biographies B Agenda for the Committee's Meeting C Acronyms and Abbreviations D Technology Readiness Levels CONTENTS 83 105 111 114 118